THE UNIFIED FORCE AND THE LAWS OF EVERYTHING
COPYRIGHT © 2017, By Jonathan P. Volkel
Scientists and mathematicians have long sought to discover “The Theory of Everything”. They seek a “Unifying Force”, or a “Unified Field” theory to explain the universe. The various “fields” that science has thus far observed seem to behave differently than one another and possess different mysterious abilities. A magnetic field seems to have the ability to circulate in ringed layers. An electromagnetic field seems to have the ability to self-propagate across vast distances through empty space. A gravity field is believed to have the ability to bend space. What is it that gives them those different magical abilities? Is there one other energy, force or field “out there” that embodies all of these characteristics and selectively releases those abilities into our universe?
Some scientists have been seeking the answer for their entire scientific careers. They believe that some sort of as yet undiscovered, exotic, new and innovative mathematical concept or formula will reveal the answer. However, all efforts to try and explain how the Laws of science can be broken have, so far, been in vain. If one such scientist actually decided to read this paper, perhaps it was because he was desperately seeking some sort of a clue, hint, or new concept that might point him in the right direction. He might even feel that, even if the information here leads in a wrong direction, at least reading this will save him the time of exploring that pathway on his own. Nevertheless, his time is too precious to waste on trivial and ignorant dead ends. And so, rather than actually reading this in the proper way, he will instead quickly scroll through the contents, seeking to spot the new and mysterious mathematical formula that should lie within, which he can then dissect and evaluate.
On the one hand, scientists realize that they do not know what the “Unified Force” is. On the other hand, the theories that were taught to them convince them that they do know what it must be and how to look for it. By now, it should be obvious to them that those theories are getting them nowhere. It is those theories that are leading them into a dead end. It’s time for a fresh perspective. Put down the pencils and calculators. Forget about the formulas. Take a step back and take a moment to consider what it is that science thinks it is looking for. The concept of a “Unifying” force is leading science in the wrong direction. The term “unifying” is misleading because it implies that everything is different to start with, and that there is one master force out there that is the common denominator of all of them.
Instead, realize that all forces are already manifestations of one already “Unified” force. This “Unified” force is not something that is exotic, alien and undiscovered. It is something that we have already seen, and do see in action every day. It already exists, right there in front of us in plain sight, and we already know what it is without even realizing it. It is the ability of this one “Unified Force” to manifest itself with various behaviors that have been given names such as “light”, “magnetism” and “gravity” that is causing science to misidentify it.
The universe is filled with just this one and only energy, and it manifests to us with different effects depending upon the situation. A loose analogy might be to compare it to a musical instrument, such as a trumpet. It uses three valves to create a whole range of different notes depending upon how those valves are moved. All of those notes come from one source. Those notes can all be different, and yet, they are also all “made of” the same thing. The atom is made of three separate components. Depending upon how those components move, the whole range of known energies can be manifested. The one “Unified Force” is manipulated by the atom to produce the entire spectrum of the known forces. It all depends upon how that energy moves and what it moves through.
A good example of this is lightning. One single bolt of lightning manifests as many different types of energy such as: light, electricity, magnetism, heat, sound and vibration. Does lightning embody all these completely different energies which are all existing and working simultaneously, either with or against one another? Doesn’t it make more sense that lightning is just one single type of energy being manifested in many different ways? This paper will reveal to you what that one energy is and why it manifests to us with different effects. That one energy also manifests to us as gravity and all the other forces that we perceive.
This paper is all about the Unified Force. It is entitled “The Unified Force and the Laws of Everything” because all one needs to know in order to understand the Unified Force is the basic and proven laws of science. The laws of motion, gravitation and conservation of energy are essentially all that is needed to explain all the workings of the universe. The current scientific theories that exist are called “theories” because they are not proven to be true. They are complicated, confusing and contradictory. In fact, Einstein’s Theory of Relativity is completely wrong, and all of the other modern theories are built upon it. None of them will ever be proven to be true and continued adherence to them will ensure that the Unified Force will never be recognized. You will see exactly how and why as you read along.
The web site is named “The Unified Force Revealed” and is available to anyone who cares to know how the universe really works. You don’t need a PhD to understand what you are about to read. If you are capable of passing a high school level science class, then you can understand this. Although all the workings of the universe can be explained by the simple laws of science, the universe is a vast place and there is much to learn. In addition to that, there is almost a century’s worth of bad theories that need to be unlearned. Scientists think that the theories explain certain phenomenon that the laws can’t explain. The truth is, the laws can and do explain everything. The problem is that science misunderstands the situation and doesn’t realize the full picture of what’s really going on. As a result, scientists create law breaking theories to fill the gaps in their understanding.
There are two particular energy effects which are a major source of science’s errors. Because science perceived all energies as being different, confusion arose about the seemingly unnatural behavior of light and gravity. These two forces seemed to ignore the basic rules of motion. Newton's first law of motion states; "An object moves with a velocity that is constant in magnitude and direction, unless acted on by an external force." Light seemed to travel at a constant speed, and yet it doesn’t change speeds when we do. When we change speed, we apply a force to everything connected to us. Light somehow manages to not change speed, thereby ignoring this change of force and defying the first law of motion. Gravity also seems to violate the laws of nature. It is able to cause an object’s motion to change speed and direction, and yet it does so without making any observable physical contact with the object. Not only that, but gravity causes all objects to accelerate at the same rate no matter how much mass the object has. Gravity is a very confusing paradox to scientists. The first law of motion tells us that gravity must be a force because it causes changes in the speed and direction of objects, and yet the second law of motion tells us that it cannot possibly be a force because it ignores the formula: F = ma.
Einstein created his Theory of Relativity to try and explain these apparent violations of the laws of motion. His theory was born of a lack of understanding of what light and gravity really are. Because of this, he needed to redefine reality in order to make his theory work. He had to change the nature of time from being absolute to being flexible. And so, he created his theory of time dilation. In order to explain how gravity could affect the motion of objects without making any physical contact, he changed it from a force into a field which was capable of bending the non-substance of space. And, in order to explain how both light and gravity could defy the law, he removed energy from its habitation within objects, and transformed it into a disembodied particle or wave that had no mass. Thus was born the concept that an “object” could be a something with no mass that could travel through the vacuum of space.
Imagine that. Time and space had always been infinite in nature and without any physical substance. They suddenly became finite things which could be altered, combined and even erased. Energy became an object which could disconnect from matter and travel through the universe all by itself. In order to make The Theory of Relativity work, Einstein had to create “unicorns” and “ghosts”.
If you plan on reading what follows, realize that what you will read will conflict with what you were taught. If you cling too tightly to the existing theories, you will reject this. Remember that you will be reading about the unified force. At present, science does not know what that force is. You will discover that it is a force that exists only within matter, and that it cannot be disconnected from it. It transfers from one object to the next only by physical contact. As such, all of the theories on energy being disconnected from matter are incorrect. Before rejecting this idea, take a few moments to look into science's current theories on the origins of energies. Are their explanations clear, concise and definite or are they just boldly stated theoretical guesses? Would you rather have a clear and simple explanation? If so, then keep reading. You won't find any theories here. Everything you see relies on the proven laws of science. Everything is straightforward and simple.
Everything that will follow will focus on the energy of motion. The energy of motion has a scientific name: INERTIA. Technically, the official definition of “inertia” is: The tendency of an object to continue in its original state of motion. Science tends to use this term in relation to the nature of the mass of the object, and not in relation to the energy of motion within the object which causes the mass to behave as it does. The term, “inertia”, will be used here in the latter context. “Inertia” will be used in reference to the energy of motion that causes the mass to move or not move. In other words, the whole reason an object is moving or sitting still is solely because the energy of motion either resides in the object or doesn’t.
Thus, the reason why an object continues in its original state of motion is because the quantity of the energy of motion within it has not changed. And so, if a moving object collides with a non-moving object, the energy of motion will transfer from the moving object into the non-moving object. The non-moving object had inertia of “stationary”, and then has inertia of “motion”. The reason the term “inertia” is being used to describe the transfer of motion is because of the permanency of the motion. Once the transfer of motion happens, it is permanent, unless another collision happens. This idea conforms to Newton’s first law of motion: An object moves with a velocity that is constant in magnitude and direction, unless acted on by an external force. And that external force which causes a change in speed and direction ONLY comes from physical contact with another object. That change in speed and direction is therefore a change in the object’s inertia.
The most intellectually daunting concept you will find within is the concept of ones "inertial reference". Don't let it scare you. The term “inertial reference” simply boils down to the concept: "Who is moving?" If you and a friend are standing still, then your inertial reference in relation to the ground and to each other is the same. The difference in your motion in relation to one another is zero. If you are both walking in the same direction at the same constant speed, then your inertial reference (motion) in relation to the ground is not stationary (not the same), but the difference is constant. Your inertial reference (motion) in relation to you and your friend is still the same and the difference is still zero. That's all there is to it. One needs to envision who is moving, and who and what is standing still, and the motion as it relates to one another.
Some chapters may be a little difficult to envision at first. Don't give up. Things will become clearer and clearer the more that you read. Things may seem "blurry" at first, but they will come more and more into focus as you progress. Once everything finally comes into sharp focus, you will be amazed at the "picture" that is revealed. It's like building a jigsaw puzzle. Even though the pieces do fit together, the image upon them may not make sense at first. Only after enough pieces are in place can you finally understand what you're looking at. DON'T SKIP CHAPTERS. READ THEM IN THE CORRECT ORDER. The universe has to be built from the ground up, one layer at a time. You need to be sure that your foundation is solid before proceeding to the next layer. There are many new concepts here. If you skip ahead, you'll miss the whole point because you won't have the proper foundation.
Some people find it necessary to see a list of specific references concerning the information they are about to read. Perhaps they never even actually have any intention of going to the library, taking out those sources and then reading them. Somehow, just the mention that there is some sort of reference seems to comfort them.
Keep in mind that the entire world accepts Einstein’s Theory of Relativity as being true. Because of that, all of the modern day theories on how and why things work are validated through Einstein’s theory. That is, those explanations are all based upon belief in concepts such as; mass-less particles (bosons), time dilation, the ability of gravity to bend space, the idea that space and time are both “objects” which can be merged into another object known as “spacetime”, the transformation of energy into matter, etc. Even though Einstein’s theory is still universally acknowledged as being a theory and is still called a theory, scientists believe it to be absolutely true. And so, scientists take the existing factual data and interpret it in such a way so that the resultant explanation of why things work conforms to the existing theories.
Since the entire scientific world accepts those theories as being true, then EVERY physics textbook and internet source that exists will support those explanations. As such, there is no need to cite any specific reference when it comes to explaining those beliefs. You can choose any one of them that you like. The “search” box is just a few clicks away on the internet. Search whichever topic you want using whatever resource you trust. The majority of the information herein is “physics 101” type of information. It is basic, rudimentary common knowledge information.
For example, the Analysis topic “Magnetism Theories” discusses the data derived from 200 year old experiments. Those experiments can be found and examined in any “beginners” physics textbook in its chapter on magnetism. The analysis herein does not challenge the data. The analysis does not introduce new data. The analysis only provides an alternate explanation of what the proven and factual data means and why that data is what it is. The explanation that is provided herein cannot be found anywhere else. As such, there is no alternate reference for that analysis.
Herein, you will not be directed towards any specific information source to look at. That would be like doing an amateur card trick that misdirects you into looking at only what the magician needs you to look at. It is far more convincing and persuasive if you look to whatever source of information you personally prefer and trust in order to obtain confirmation. IT DOESN’T MATTER WHAT SOURCE YOU REFER TO! They will all tell you the same thing. They will all essentially tell you “Einstein was right”.
The explanations provided herein conflict with Einstein’s theory and ALL of the theories derived from it and associated with it. That is the entire point of this writing. THE THEORIES ARE WRONG. Because the world accepts those theories, and because this writing contradicts those theories, you will not find a single reference anywhere that corroborates the explanations that will be provided here. There is no reference. That means that this IS the reference. The fact that any particular scientific theory even exists is all the proof that is needed to verify that the data must also exist. It is the experimental discovery of that data which caused the need for the theory in the first place and is why the theory was created. There is no new data here and no new phenomenon of nature. This paper does not contradict the data. In fact, it relies upon the accuracy of the existing data. The information herein only provides a different, new and correct interpretation of the existing and long accepted factual data. That new interpretation merely provides a different explanation for what is going on other than science’s present theoretical “Einstein” interpretations.
One’s need for a reference is the equivalent of asking; “What does the rest of the world think about this?” That question is pointless here. The rest of the world doesn’t even know about this. The rest of the world believes in the theories. The real truth is, as yet, unknown to the world. If you keep reading this with an open mind, you will learn the secrets that the world is presently unaware of.
When you read all the chapters in order, you will learn how the universe works in a step by step, energy by energy sequence. The universe is a big place, and there is much to read. If you would instead prefer a quick shortcut that provides a comprehensive overview to the whole thing, then follow the 8 steps outlined below.
STEP 1 - Read Chapter 3 – “The Discovery” - This chapter is essential for understanding what makes the unified force work.
STEP 2 – Read the Analysis topic “The Energy of Motion” - Even if you can recite Newton’s first law of motion from memory, you should still read this. Motion is the unified force. Science does not realize this, and a correct understanding of motion is necessary to seeing why certain misconceptions exist.
STEP 3 – Read the Analysis topic “Waves” - Even if you can recite the textbook definition of a wave, you will find that it differs from the true definition of a wave. Reading this will show you how and why.
STEP 4 – Read the Analysis topic “Light Waves” - Reading this will enable you to see how and why Einstein misunderstood the true nature of light.
STEP 5 – Read the Analysis topic “Relativity” - This topic will explain Einstein’s Theory of Relativity in simple terms. You will see how and why his incorrect understanding of light and gravity caused him to word his postulates incorrectly, and what the correct wording should be. This will reveal the unified force and how Einstein completely missed it.
STEP 6 – Read the Analysis topic “Magnetic Fields” - This will provide you with a working example of the unified force in action. Once you see it, you may gain the desire to see how all of it works, step by step. If so, then go back and read all of the chapters, in order.
STEP 7 – Read the Analysis topic “TIME, SPACE, MATTER and ENERGY” – This will provide you with a clearer understanding of what those components are. The laws of science prove that our universe is made up those four, and ONLY those four things. It will show you that not only is ENERGY a unified thing, but so too are TIME, SPACE and MATTER each a unified thing.
STEP 8 – Read the Analysis topic “Sub-Atomic Motion” - The motion that we observe in our everyday lives is that of atomic motion. It is the result of many objects moving in succession in an incredibly fast chain reaction of collisions. The result and perception of that motion is different than what happens with sub-atomic motion. Science is unaware of this difference and that unawareness contributes to the need for them to cling to the bad theories. When equipped with a correct understanding of sub-atomic motion, the step by step explanation for exactly how and why gravity is created by the atom can be understood.
Chapter 1 -THE SOURCE OF THE PROBLEM
COPYRIGHT © 2017, By Jonathan P. Volkel
A WAVE: A patterned vibration which creates a disturbance that travels through a medium.
How do waves of energy travel? By simply observing the way things work around us, we thought we knew. There was a time when we firmly believed in the above definition of a wave. For example, we believed that sound energy transferred from air molecule to air molecule. First, the sound energy causes one air molecule to move, and then it bumps into the next one and causes it to move, and so on. Eventually, the chain reaction of moving air molecules finally reaches us and the motion transfers to our eardrums.
A moving voice box is one example of a patterned vibration. Its vibrations create a disturbance in the medium of particles that we call “air”. The transference of that vibrating pattern from one air molecule to the next is the process known as “propagation”. The pattern of that propagation is the wave. The corresponding motion that the wave creates in our eardrums is interpreted by our brains as “sound”.
Everything else we've ever observed confirmed that concept. If you hit a railroad track with a hammer, the sound propagates through the rails even faster than it does through air. Sound also propagates through water. It is apparent that sound is just the patterned motion of atoms which propagates through a medium. Motion that is of lower frequency than sound, such as earthquake shock waves, also propagate through a medium such as water and can produce tsunamis hundreds of miles away. Apparently, in order for the motion of one object “over here” to get to another object “over there”, without having to make direct object to object contact, the energy of motion absolutely needs to transfer from particle to particle by propagating through some sort of a medium in order to get “over there”. Or so we thought.
Over a century ago, scientists knew from their studies on light that it too was an energy wave. Since everything we knew about waves told us that they must propagate through something, then that should also apply to light as well. The problem is that light travels through the vacuum of outer space. At least, as far as we can tell, it is an empty vacuum. What then, could it possibly be propagating through?
Whatever this “something” was, it would have to be made up of countless particles of matter, just as air and water are made up of countless particles. It would have to exist not only in outer space, but all around us as well. It would have to fill our entire universe. It would also have to somehow be invisible. Not only that, but it would have to be something that would not interfere with the movement of objects. It was this "non-interference" requirement that led to the conclusion that this medium of particles would therefore also have to be mass-less.
Convinced that some sort of medium absolutely had to exist, scientists gave it a name even though they didn’t know what it was. They called it “The Lumineferous Aether”, or simply, the “ether”. In the late 1800’s an experiment was performed that tried to search for, find and identify the ether. The results of that experiment seemed to prove that no such medium existed.
Rather than trying other methods to continue the search, they gave up. Apparently, the experiment that seemed to indicate that the ether did not exist must have been the definitive, once and for all, final proof that was needed. That means that if that same experiment had yielded positive results, everyone would have rejoiced and been convinced that it had been found. But, since they were sufficiently convinced that the ether did not exist, they completely gave up on the idea that energy had to propagate through something. They abandoned everything we learned and knew about how energy travels. And thus began the quest to figure out how mass-less energy could travel without a medium.
That was the turning point in modern science, and the source of today's scientific problems. The age of scientific reasoning based upon proven facts came to an end, and the age of scientific reasoning based solely upon unproven and unprovable theories began. Scientists focused their attention on creating theories to try and explain how waves could travel without propagating through a medium.
In the early 1900’s, Albert Einstein came up with a theory of how it could be possible. The workings of that theory had inconsistencies with the actual observations of how things happened, which required the creation of additional theories to explain the inconsistencies. Some of those theories are time dilation, length contraction, the gravitational bending of space, relativistic mass, mass-less energy particles, unbreakable speed limits, self-propagation and the concept of space-time, to name just a few. These theories are all necessary in order to make his explanation work. His explanation is known as “The Theory of Relativity”. More inconsistencies arose when attempting to match Relativity with reality. This caused the creation of even more theories, such as black holes, dark matter, dark energy and string theory.
The idea that waves could travel without propagating through a medium gave birth to all kinds of ideas on not only how light travels, but also gravity, magnetism and heat. Theory after theory sprung up about how and why these forces were able to do what they could do. The ideas even led to the creation of a model of the atom that might conform to the theories. In 1913, the Bohr model of the atom was created. Over the years, new ideas have led to slight changes in the theory of how it actually looks and works, but, in general, it is essentially still the same and it looks something like this.
The Bohr model of the atom depicts the protons and neutrons being approximately equal in mass and clustered in a stationary nucleus. The electrons orbit around the nucleus. It was at first believed that the electrons were held in orbit by gravity. Later, it was believed that they were held in place by electrostatic charges. In theory, the electrons are negatively charged and protons are positively charged. Since opposites attract, it is then the attraction created by the protons that keeps the orbiting electrons from flying off into space. How does that attractive force get from the protons to the electrons? Just look at the model. That force would have to become disembodied from the mass of the proton and travel through the vacuum of empty space between it and the electron. Once at the electron, this force would then somehow enter the electron which would then somehow cause it to stay in orbit around the atom. Perhaps an opposite force is simultaneously emitted from the electron, and the two opposing forces meet in the middle, grab hold of one another, and hang on to each other. Whichever way it somehow works, the opposite forces disconnect from their "hosts", travel through the vacuum in-between and "attract" one another. Somehow, they get the job done.
The concept of how one atom transfers its energy into another atom deserves a brief mention. All atoms are surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons, and we know that like charges repel. Or do they? If they do, then this means that all atoms should repel one another resulting in the end of all energy transfer and the end of the universe. Ah, but wait. There is a concept called "electronegativity". With this theory, like charges no longer repel. Instead, an atom that has a greater negative charge will transfer energy with an atom that has a lesser negative charge. That’s funny. Actually, an object that is more negative will repel another negative object even more. You should take the time to look up that theory. It involves differences in energy potential to explain it, while simultaneously minimizing the whole concept of opposites attracting and like charges repelling.
If the concepts that make electronegativity work were true, then wouldn’t a corresponding concept be equally true? That is, a brand new theory that could be named "protopositivity". With this theory, protons in a nucleus will group themselves into uneven teams. This would result in one group having a greater positive charge than the other group. This would then cause them to attract one another instead of repelling one another, just like the electrons do when they interact with electrons in other atoms. Wouldn't this eliminate the need for the theoretical strong or weak atomic forces? If this is confusing to you, it is because this concept was taken to its extreme implications in order to do just that. The whole idea is ridiculous. Either identical polarities repel one another, or they don't.
Of course, the concept of like charges repelling left that one big problem with the proton. Why then don't all the positive charged protons in the nucleus push away from one another? There are no known forces to account for this discrepancy. Rather than going back to the drawing board and rethinking this model of the atom, they invented forces out of thin air to force the Bohr model to be true. Thus was born the strong atomic force. It helps keep the nucleus intact. Although that force doesn't exist in the large scale macro world all around us, and so can't be analyzed or verified, it absolutely must exist. If it doesn't, then the Bohr model won't work, and it's simply not possible that they made a mistake in designing the model of the atom. (Ahem). Hopefully, you can begin to see for yourself how the theories start to contradict with the way we know that things actually work. The best way to keep a bad theory from being proven wrong is to hide it where nobody can get to it to verify it, like, buried deep within the nucleus of an atom or at a speed well above our ability to achieve.
All of these theories are incorrect because of an error in an initial assumption. Before challenging that assumption, the Relativity theories will be challenged. Rather than wasting time contradicting all of them, the one that is most obviously in error will be examined and proven to be incorrect. Einstein's theories on how light could travel without a medium required him to bend the laws of nature and transform one of the natural constants of the universe into a variable. In order for his theories to work, time itself would have to become flexible. And so, the concept of time dilation was created. The next chapter will show you that Einstein was mistaken and that there is no such thing as “time dilation”. Without time dilation, Einstein’s entire theory falls apart.
One of the most difficult obstacles that you will encounter when reading what follows is YOURSELF. Everything that you now know about the way things work is, more or less correct. For example, science has accurately predicted the motion of gravity. The problem comes in when science tries to explain WHY it happens. Everything you were ever taught, read, or seen on the topic of energy all conveys to you the theories on why things work. The entire world follows those theories. What you are about to read not only contradicts those theories, but then explains to you how it REALLY works.
Your very first instinct is going to be "That's not how it works. I'm not going to read any more of this nonsense." Such thinking is counterproductive. You have to force yourself to "snap out of it". What you need to be thinking is: "That's not how I was taught. Show me more." If you give up and walk away, you will learn nothing and remain bogged down in unproven and un-provable theories. Remember, if you carry those theories with you as you travel onward, they will weigh you down. If you hold onto them too tightly, they will become Lead weights that will stop you dead in your tracks.
Before reading any further, consider this. What if the initial instincts of scientists were correct? What if everything we've ever seen about the propagation of energy waves was always true? What if it were indeed true that the only way for waves to move from one place to another required a medium for them to propagate through? What if that something existed and light itself actually traveled only because it was propagating through some sort of massive “ocean” of particles? What would that do to Einstein's theories?
In chapter 5, you will see what light really is. You will see how it is created, and how it travels. Einstein's theories will begin to unravel, and you won't like it. Ignore that feeling and KEEP READING.
In chapter 6 you will see what magnetism really is. If you look up magnetism in an encyclopedia, you can learn all about what it does, but the descriptions as to how and why it does it are very vague. It will become apparent to you that science is very unsure about its nature. Would you prefer their complicated and theoretical explanation, or would you rather have a simple, clearly defined knowledge? Here, you will see exactly how and why it is created, what the energy is that makes it work, and why it manifests as a "pulling" force. What you will see is NOT a theory. Every single explanation conforms to every known provable law of science.
In chapter 8, gravity will be explained. Look that one up in an encyclopedia too. Newton first described it as a force. The dictionary will tell you that gravity is the force which pulls together all matter. Even a NASA definition defines it as a force that draws all objects to the center. And yet, Einstein said that gravity is not actually a force, but the result of space itself being bent. Essentially, mass falls into the "bent space" and therefore seems to be drawn to the center of a mass. Even though the world embraces his theory which re-defines gravity as being a "field", gravity is still called a "force". It's as if we all instinctively know that gravity must utilize some kind of force that interacts with matter and causes motion. And yet, because we have no idea of what actually generates that force or how it actually does what it does, we are left with no choice but to accept Einstein's theory about bent space. If you try and sort it out by researching it for yourself, you will come to one conclusion. Science has no idea as to what gravity really is or how and why it works.
Here, you will see EXACTLY what gravity is. You will learn that it is indeed a force and what the nature of its energy is, how it is generated, how it moves, and how it draws objects. Although a gravity wave is created by a force, the ensuing motion that is created in objects that come into contact with the wave doesn’t require the use of a force at all. It is this non-force motion which seems to violate the second law of motion that has perpetually been confusing scientists. They could only explain it with “bent space”. Here, you will see exactly what causes the non-force motion. The explanation is simple and obeys every known and provable law of science. There are no theories here.
A great deal of our present day scientific “knowledge” is founded upon unproven theories. Because none of those theories are used here, much of what you will read will go against everything you were taught. Each theory needs to be peeled away one layer at a time. By the time you get to the chapter on the proton and heat, you will see the correct model of the atom. Once you see it, everything will fall into place and you will know that you have indeed found the unified force and that it conforms to the laws of everything. Perhaps the thing that will end up surprising you the most is going to be the realization that you've always known what the unified force was all the time, and just never realized it.
Consider this. Once Einstein accepted that no medium existed for energy waves to propagate through, he realized that the behavior of light and gravity had to violate the proven laws of motion in order to travel through the vacuum of outer space. He came up with a theory that essentially says: “This is how you break the law”.
Einstein failed to realize the most basic, fundamental, crucial and ultimately important concept in all of science. THE LAWS CAN’T BE BROKEN. Nothing can bend, break or ignore the laws. This includes light and gravity. Einstein misunderstood the nature and behavior of light and gravity and mistakenly thought that the laws were being violated. Once you are equipped with the correct understanding of how and why they really function, you will see that the laws are never violated and that Einstein’s theory is not only incorrect, but that it is utterly impossible.
Chapter 2 - TIME DILATION
COPYRIGHT © 2017, By Jonathan P. Volkel
This chapter will make a close examination of the theory of time dilation. Why is this relevant to anything? When it was accepted that light waves traveled without the need of some sort of a medium to travel through, scientists needed to come up with explanations as to how this could be possible. Scientific experiments seemed to confirm that the speed of light was constant, whether you were moving or not. How could that be possible? How could your speed change, and yet light's speed not change right along with you? Not only that, but light has a speed limit. If both light waves and light particles have no mass, then they should move at infinite speed. The laws of physics tell us that. And yet, there is a speed limit. Why?
Einstein created a theory that provided a possible explanation of how light waves could travel without propagating through a medium. However, the only way that his theory would seem to work was if the progress of Time somehow slowed down more and more, the faster and faster you moved. The concept is known as “time dilation”. Mathematical formulas were developed to try and validate this theory, and it was thereby calculated that such alterations in the flow of time would only be noticeable at very fast speeds. In fact, one would have to travel close to the speed of light to actually be able to measure it. Because of this, there is no way to perform an experiment to actually prove that the theory is correct, or even incorrect.
In an effort to "prove" that the theory was correct, "thought experiments" were devised to prove the validity of time dilation. A thought experiment is not performed in any actual laboratory. It is performed in the laboratory of the imagination. In order to "perform the experiment", one would have to envision the experiment and logically conclude what the outcome would be based upon the parameters of the experiment and the behavior of the objects used in the experiment. A time dilation thought experiment requires the making of several assumptions about the nature of light. Based upon these assumptions, the experiments were invented and then taught to all of us as fact.
Scientists are convinced that time dilation is real because of inconsistencies in atomic clocks. Clocks orbiting in space do, in fact, run slower than clocks on Earth's surface. It is the belief in time dilation that leaves scientists believing that they already know the cause of this discrepancy and it prevents them from looking deeper into the problem for a solution. In Chapter 4, you will see the real reason as to why the clocks are running slower and that it has nothing to do with time dilation. Scientists even believe that gravity alters time, because gravity also seems to affect the travel of light. You will also see later as to exactly how gravity affects light and that it has nothing to do with altering time.
Is it actually possible that time itself is not constant? Scientists had always believed that Time was absolute, constant and simultaneous. Were they wrong? Can it actually be altered, slowed down, or even stopped? Such a thought seems impossible. Not only that, but it is claimed that all one needs to do to experience altered time is merely travel fast enough. What does how fast one is going have to do with the passage of time? The whole concept seems ridiculous. And yet, here we are, living in a world where scientists now claim that this is fact. The theories on what "light" is and why it behaves as it does depends on time dilation being true. This whole concept definitely deserves a closer look. If they're right about the existence of time dilation, then their theories about what "light" is might indeed be correct. If they are wrong about time dilation, then the theories on what "light" is and how it travels need to be changed.
The Special Relativity theory of time dilation does indeed have some noticeable inconsistencies in it. When the thought experiments that explain and “prove” the existence of time dilation are examined, closer inspection reveals that they do not prove to be true under all conditions. In fact, with just slight alterations in the setup of the thought experiments, not only does it become obvious that the results for time dilation are completely inconsistent, but that one specific alteration conclusively proves that it cannot exist at all. For an experiment to be valid, it must be valid under all conditions, and time dilation definitely does not meet that criteria. This analysis will show what those inconsistencies are and the proof that time dilation does not exist. Once proven this leaves the enormous questions “If not time dilation, then how does one explain the results of all the scientific experiments that point to it?”, and, "What, then, is the real nature of light?"
The real reason light behaves as it does does not require theories like "Time Dilation". The actual explanation is simple and easy and uses all the known and provable laws of science. The actual, real world experiments that prove the explanation is correct have already been done over the past century. Everybody simply misinterpreted the results. They lacked the correct “Rosetta stone” needed to translate the results properly.
To start, a basic time dilation thought experiment that is frequently used in Physics text books to demonstrate and validate the existence of time dilation will be examined. It involves the use of a boxcar, mirror, laser emitter and a timer. Remember that this is a “thought experiment”. The conditions necessary to perform this experiment are impossible to duplicate in the real world. The speeds needed are beyond our ability to achieve. As such, the laboratory is limited to that of the imagination. The results achieved are determined by making assumptions about the behavior of light and then imagining the logical sequence of events that is believed would occur.
Here is the experiment that "proves" that time dilation is true.
In the setup for this experiment, the boxcar is stationary. A laser emitter is mounted on the floor and is pointing straight up. Directly above is a mirror whose surface is parallel to the floor. When the laser is fired, the beam goes up, bounces off the mirror and then returns to the starting point. For this particular setup, the time it takes for the beam to complete the trip is 2 units of time (one up and one down). There is an observer inside the boxcar and an observer outside the boxcar. In this stationary position both observers see the same path for the beam and they measure the same time for the round trip: straight up and down and a total time of 2t.
In the next part of this experiment, the boxcar is in motion. It is travelling at a constant speed which is very fast (a significant fraction of the speed of light).
From the perspective of the observer in the boxcar, he will see the exact same thing that he saw when the boxcar was standing still. This is because that even though the boxcar, mirror and laser are all moving to the right, so is he. And, they are all moving at the same speed. As a result, since his inertial reference is still the same as that of the experiment, he sees no difference in the path of light. Since the speed of light is constant, and the observed distance is exactly the same, then the elapsed time for the round trip of the beam as seen by the observer in motion should be the same: 2t.
From the perspective of the stationary observer outside the boxcar, things are quite different. He perceives that the boxcar, mirror and laser are all moving to the right. He can see that the horizontal motion of the boxcar combines with the vertical motion of the beam. He can see that the mirror was displaced to the right when the beam struck it. He can see the diagonal pathway of light that the horizontal and vertical motions create. The length of the two diagonal lines which is the pathway of the beam is longer than the length of the two up-and-down vertical lines. This means that the beam of light MUST be travelling a farther distance. Since the speed of light is constant, and the light is travelling farther, then it MUST take more time to complete the up and down diagonal pathway.
Let’s assume that the speed of the boxcar is such that the resultant diagonal pathway yields a total elapsed time for the beam of 3t. Since the stationary observer has not changed his inertial reference compared to when the boxcar was standing still, then his is the true measure of elapsed time (he’s not the one that moved. The boxcar and its contents moved). He aged 3 units of time, while the observer in motion only aged 2 units of time. This means that time has slowed down for the observer in the moving boxcar. He is experiencing time dilation.
At first glance, this all seems to make a lot of sense. Formulas can be derived which enable the calculation of the exact amount of time dilation. Doesn’t that mean that if there is a formula then it MUST be true? The formula is true only in that it accurately calculates the difference in the length of the lines. When that is combined with the constant speed of light, an elapsed time is calculated. Does this elapsed time really indicate that time dilation is actually happening, or does it just indicate the difference that it takes for light to travel a farther distance? The only way that this experiment can confirm the theory of time dilation is if it works under ALL different configurations.
So then, that's it, right? The above thought experiment proves time dilation is true. Case closed. No need to ask any questions or look any deeper. But, shouldn't we look deeper? Does this experiment work always under all conditions? Let's look a little closer, just to be sure that it's true. After all, how could we be expected to accept something as fact without first making sure it was consistently true? Apparently, they don't want us to look closer, because you will NEVER see the above experiment explained using any different conditions than those shown. We will now look a bit closer. If we get the same results, then we should be more confident in the truth of it.
Let’s repeat the exact same experiment with just a couple of small changes. The position of the laser emitter will be moved to the front of the boxcar and the mirror moved to the middle. In addition to that, the angle at which the beam is fired will be changed. Instead of firing it straight up, we will angle it backwards in such a way that it exactly recreates the shape of the triangle that was seen by the stationary observer when the boxcar was in motion in the first experiment. Once set up, when the experiment is performed while the boxcar is stationary, the results will be as follows.
Since the shape of this triangle is exactly the same as the shape of the triangle as seen by the stationary observer when the boxcar was in motion in the first experiment, then the length of the diagonal lines is exactly the same. Since the speed of light is constant, and the total length is exactly the same as when the boxcar was in motion in the previous experiment, the time will end up being exactly the same as the stationary observer timed when the boxcar was moving in the previous experiment: 3t. Thus, in this version of the experiment, while the boxcar is standing still, both the observers see the same thing and time the same amount of time: 3t.
For the next part of the experiment, we put the boxcar in motion. We move it at exactly the same speed and direction as in the previous experiment. The results are as follows.
When the boxcar is in motion, the observer in the boxcar will see the exact same pathway of the beam as when the boxcar was standing still. This is exactly the same parameters that applied in the first experiment when the beam was firing straight up and down. Because the observer in the boxcar is moving at the same speed (has the same inertial reference) as the boxcar, mirror and laser, he will see no difference in the experiment. Since he still sees the diagonal pathway and the speed of light is constant, the observer in motion still measures a total time of 3t.
Now it gets interesting. What does the stationary observer see? As the beam travels up and to the left when fired from the emitter, the boxcar and its contents move to the right. Since the boxcar is moving at the exact same speed that created this triangular shape in the first experiment, its horizontal movement will now combine with the beams triangular pattern of movement and un-create it. As a result of the combination of these two motions, the stationary observer will see the beam travel in a vertical up and down path. Since the vertical path is shorter than the diagonal path and the speed of light is constant, then he MUST measure less time for the up and down trip. In fact, he will measure the same time as when the boxcar was at rest in the first experiment: 2t. Since the stationary observer is the one whose inertial reference hasn’t changed, then his is the true measure of elapsed time, just as in the previous experiment.
In this experiment, the observer on the boxcar measured 3t when the boxcar was in motion. The stationary observer measured 2t. 2t is the normal time and 3t is the dilated time. In this case, the observer in motion aged MORE than the observer at rest. In the first experiment, it was the other way around. Time dilation has nothing to do with the laser beam on the boxcar. It is merely the measuring device being used to detect dilation and determine its magnitude. Remember that the theory of time dilation believes that the faster you go, the slower time passes for you. Time dilation is supposedly created solely by the motion of the boxcar. How then, can it be possible that the results of the exact same motion of the boxcar become completely contradictory when the motion of the beam is opposite the motion of the boxcar?
The time dilation principle displayed in this example has been recreated with various thought experiments. In one of those experiments, two mirrors are positioned one above the other, their faces parallel to one another. A beam of light bounces back and forth between them like the steady ticking of a clock. As the mirrors move, the diagonal pattern is created, growing larger as the speed of the mirrors increases, indicating increased time dilation. However, with one small change, that experiment would yield the same results as this one. When the upper mirror is moved to any position behind the lower mirror, the initial ticking of the clock takes more time. As the mirrors move in the opposite direction, the ticking speeds up, indicating reverse dilation.
How could this be possible? The answer to that is simple. It is NOT possible. The inconsistent results reveal that something is drastically wrong with this entire experiment. The reason this is happening is because the creators of this thought experiment completely misunderstood the behavior of light. In fact, they are unaware of the very nature of light itself and how it relates to different inertial references. The correct explanation for the behavior of light does not need concepts like time dilation, length contraction, or gravitational bending of space to explain why light behaves like it does.
In order to be doubly sure as to whether something fishy is going on or not, it is necessary to perform the first experiment one more time, only with a different small change. This experiment will prove conclusively that there is no such thing as time dilation. It is only by proving that time dilation does not exist that people should be more attentive to listening to what the true nature of light really is. After all, at this point you might be wondering if this is some kind of a trick. The entire scientific world believes in the first experiment. Why should you trust this?
OK. Let's do this experiment one more time. Only, this time, let's do it in such a way that we can actually verify it. Let's do a real world experiment that we can PROVE is true.
The setup and execution of this experiment is exactly the same as the previous experiments, but with one change. Instead of using a laser beam, we will use a rubber ball. We won’t need a mirror anymore because we will just bounce the ball off of the ceiling. In order to closely approximate the ability of light to have the same “up” speed as “down” speed, we need to fulfill three requirements. First, a ball launcher needs to be devised that can consistently launch the ball at the same velocity every time with at least 99.9% consistency. Secondly, we need to perform the experiment in an environment where gravity is not an issue (a space boxcar or a space station). Thirdly, the rubber ball needs to be made out of a super bouncy material, such that after it bounces off the ceiling it has the same velocity going down as it did going up to within 99.9% accuracy. Some of this may sound impossible, but then again, so does the concept of a boxcar travelling at relativistic speeds. In thought experiments, perfect conditions are possible. Although creating the conditions in which one could actually perform this experiment would be VERY expensive, it would be possible. Even so, common sense and life experience will easily show us the correct results without having to actually perform the experiment.
Here’s the setup.
This is the initial “at rest” experiment. The speed of the ball and the distance to the ceiling is such that the flight time for the ball is one unit of time up and one unit of time down for a total time of 2t. The travel path for the ball appears identical to both observers and the measured flight time of 2t is identical for both observers. Of course it is. This experiment allows you to envision it with an everyday object whose behavior we are quite familiar with. In fact, you may already anticipate exactly what the end result will be.
Next, we move the boxcar at a steady speed. It doesn’t have to be relativistic speeds. The ball is moving much slower than a beam of light, which means slower boxcar speeds will yield visible results. When using light in the previous experiments, “t” might have represented nanoseconds. In this experiment, “t” might represent seconds (the ball launcher shoots the ball at about 10 mph).
The observer in the boxcar is moving horizontally with the boxcar, with the ball launcher and with the ball. As the ball travels through the air, it is really travelling up and to the right, and then down and to the right. Because the observer in motion is also moving to the right at the exact same rate, he perceives the ball as moving straight up and down. He sees no difference in the experiment compared to when the boxcar was stationary. Since his inertial reference exactly matches that of everything else, he will time the exact same time as when the boxcar was standing still: 2t.
The stationary observer outside the boxcar sees something quite different. He can perceive the combined horizontal and vertical movement of the ball and he can perceive the triangular pattern. When he measures the time, he will also measure 2t. Why? He sees the ball travelling a longer path than the observer in motion sees. Shouldn’t he then measure a longer flight time for the ball? The answer is no. The reason is because we are no longer dealing with light. The inertia (horizontal motion) of the boxcar only affected the direction but not the speed of the beam of light, but it directly affects both the direction and speed of the ball. In fact, the inertia which is added to the ball by the moving boxcar is exactly enough to give it the speed needed in order to complete the longer journey in the exact same time. Although both observers see different things, they both measure the same total time for the ball to make the up and down trip.
Pick any speed for the boxcar. What answer do you get for time of flight measured by the observer in the boxcar and the observer off the boxcar? You can put away your calculator. You don’t need it. Logic tells you that the elapsed time will still be 2t for both observers. The inertia of the boxcar will always add exactly to the inertia of the ball, allowing it to complete the trip in exactly the same amount of time, every time. If you could accelerate the boxcar and its contents to near the speed of light, both observers would still measure 2t as the elapsed time. This is because the speed of the ball is not constant, but changes directly with the speed of the boxcar. What happened to time dilation? According to the results of this experiment; THERE IS NONE AT ANY AND ALL SPEEDS OF THE BOXCAR.
This experiment reveals the flaws that occur when the experiment is done using light. The first flaw is the concept of “what the observer sees”. In all the experiments, once the boxcar moves, what the two observers see is very different. In the experiments where the initial trajectory was straight up, the faster the boxcar goes, the longer in length the triangle seen by the stationary observer, but the observer in motion will always see the straight up and down path of travel. In the experiments using light, it is proposed that whatever an observer sees is what the true path actually is according to his inertial reference. Thus, reality is based upon the inertial reference relative to you ( that's why it's named "The Theory of Relativity"). That is why they assumed the observer in motion in the first light experiment would measure the same elapsed time whether standing still or moving.
If that is true in the previous experiments which used light, then it must also be true here and in all configurations. Using a rubber ball instead of light makes no difference. However, the laws of nature tell us, and we almost instinctively know that when the boxcar is moving the ball absolutely MUST be moving faster.
Therefore, since the ball MUST be moving faster when the boxcar is moving, and the observer in motion sees the shorter, vertical up and down path, and his perspective theoretically is a “relativistic reality”, wouldn’t he then measure it as taking less time? Travelling the same distance (up-and-down) at a faster speed would yield a shorter length of time for the trip. If that were true, then he should also be able to perceive that the ball is travelling faster. However, in reality, life experience tells us that will not happen. If you pour a cup of coffee in your kitchen or on an airplane in flight, it will pour exactly the same in both inertial references. You will perceive no difference in the behavior of the pouring coffee.
The only logical conclusion that can be drawn from this is that even though the observer in motion sees the same pathway while in motion, the faster speed of the ball, combined with the same travel time proves that the ball absolutely must be travelling farther, despite what the observer sees. In other words, this proves that what the observer in motion sees is not a relativistic reality but is merely an optical illusion.
Therefore, since the speed of light is constant, then the observer in motion in the first experiment would NOT have actually timed 2t, as the parameters of the experiment ASSUMED would be the case. He might have been alarmed to see the time actually come in at 3t, but then he would have realized that the only way that could be possible is if the light was actually travelling farther. The only way that would be possible was if, despite what he saw or felt, he was actually in motion.
The human mind always perceives itself as standing still in whatever inertial reference it is in. It does so in order to prevent motion sickness. As soon as the brain becomes aware that it is the one that is moving, nausea and dizziness can occur. This is why sea sickness happens. The brain always tries to convince itself that it is not moving, but the up and down tossing of the waves makes that impossible. A cure for sea sickness is to stare at a faraway fixed object. This helps to convince the subconscious mind that it is stationary, and the nausea fades. The proofs of time dilation ignore the fact that what the observer in motion sees can be an optical illusion. Those proofs try to convince us that what we see is actually what the reality is, and that conclusion is absurd.
The fact that this light experiment is impossible to perform in the real world perpetuates belief in it. It was stated by the creators of the experiment that the observer in motion would measure the same elapsed time for the beam of light whether the boxcar was standing still or in motion. How do we know that he would? Can we verify it experimentally? Sorry, but that’s impossible to do. We lack the technology. How could it be possible to measure the same amount of time for the light whether standing still or moving? They think it is because what he sees is the relativistic reality. Obviously, the whole concept is ridiculous.
The second thing that this experiment reveals is that there is no such thing as time dilation. You can accelerate the boxcar as fast as you like, and elapsed time will ALWAYS come out equal for both observers. The results that were obtained using a ball prove this. The laws of physics demand that it must be so. The time that is measured by both observers will be the same EVERY TIME AT ANY SPEED. This also proves that there is something seriously wrong with the experiments that used light to obtain the results. The logic of how light behaves, and even of what light actually is, is seriously flawed. These experiments were derived from attempts to follow the Special Relativity postulate which states that “The speed of light is constant no matter what inertial reference it is in”.
Although that statement is true, it causes readers to assume that the inertial reference of the beam of light is the same as the inertial reference that the observer is in. That is the false assumption that is screwing up everything. Yes, the speed of light seems to be constant no matter what inertial reference it is in. No, the inertial reference of a beam of light does not always match the inertial reference that you are in. How is that possible? How can its speed be constant and exist in your “space” and yet not have the same inertial reference as you do? This is where things get interesting. The answer is easy and simple and resolves ALL the irregularities observed in experiments involving light. There is no need to invent a theory that defies all the known laws of science. All such theories are wrong.
Imagine taking decades to plot all the movements of the Sun, Moon and planets. Once the data was in, try imagining building a model of the solar system based on that data, but not realizing you made a fatally wrong assumption. You assumed that the Earth was at the center of the solar system. All your data is correct, but as you build the model, the orbits needed to satisfy the data become more and more impossible to create. You would need to create crazy theories to explain how the planets could move in such complicated ways. Finally, the light dawns and you realize your mistake. Eureka! The Earth is not at the center, the Sun is! Once you know this simple but profound truth, the model of the solar system is easy and simple to create. It’s the same way with light. Once you know the truth about its nature and how it actually travels, all the data falls right into place simply and easily. There is no need to perform any more experiments to validate this. They have all already been done. All you need to learn is how to interpret the data that already exists.
Chapter 3 -THE DISCOVERY
COPYRIGHT © 2017, By Jonathan P. Volkel
Modern science believes light to be comprised of both particles and waves. It is believed that both of these components are mass-less objects and that light can self-propagate through the vacuum of outer space. However, this theoretical understanding of light was conceived of by Albert Einstein in the early 1900’s. Prior to his theory, scientists had very different ideas as to the nature of light.
Throughout history, everything we knew about the transmission of waves on this Earth required that energy waves travel through a medium. For example, sound waves travel through the medium of air. Once those waves encounter a vacuum (an absence of air particles), the waves stop. All observations and evidences unanimously confirm that some sort of medium is required to transmit waves.
Our understanding of light indicated that it too was a wave. That should mean that it would also need a medium to propagate through. But, light travels through the seeming vacuum of outer space. In theory, outer space must not be a true vacuum. Some sort of medium must exist there in order for the propagation of light waves to occur. However, the observations of light’s behavior created some confusion as to what this medium must be. Basically, according to the laws of science, if something is in motion with you, its speed should change when your speed changes. However, light’s speed appeared to be fixed no matter what your speed was.
In an attempt to account for this phenomenon, scientists theorized that, if the medium for the propagation of light existed, it would have to be fixed, rigid and motionless. This would give it a constant and unchanging inertial reference (zero motion). This situation would explain why the speed of light seems constant. However, in order for a motionless medium to not interfere with the motion of all the objects that move through outer space, such a medium would therefore also have to be mass-less. It was also concluded that this theoretical medium would have to exist not only in the vacuum of outer space, but would also have to exist in and around all matter. This theoretical medium was given a name; The Lumineferous Aether. For the sake of simplicity, from here on it will simply be referred to as the ether.
Scientists tried to figure out ways to search for and find the ether. In the late 1800’s, several such experiments were performed by Albert Michelson and Edward Morley. Michelson invented a device called the interferometer and used it to try and detect the ether. They conducted many experiments and concluded that the results indicated that there was no stationary ether out there. It is because of these results that Einstein began his search for another explanation for how light could travel without a medium. He eventually came up with his Theory of Relativity. In order to have a better understanding of the errors that empower Einstein’s theoretical ideas, a closer look at the Michelson-Morley experiment is required.
The interferometer sends out a beam of light into a splitter. The splitter splits the beam into two and sends the two beams in directions at right angles to one another (north and east for example). The reason one beam is sent and then split rather than sending two beams is because if you sent two separate beams, there would be no way to guarantee that they were synchronized when “launched”. Splitting a single beam guarantees synchronization between the two beams. The beams would then strike mirrors placed at equal distances from the splitter and reflect back towards the splitter. Then they would be redirected towards a view screen where the returning beams could be re-combined and examined. If they returned at the exact same time and remained in synchronization, then it means that they traveled the exact same distance at the exact same speed.
The problem is that there is no way to construct this device and guarantee that the two mirrors would be EXACTLY the same distance from the splitter. This was anticipated by them and they knew that the beams would return with some amount of desynchronization. This would result in the wavelengths not lining up and would cause various patterns to appear in the image. These patterns were called “interference fringes”. Thus, no matter where you were or which way the interferometer was facing, you could always expect to see interference fringes at the beginning of the experiment.The following block diagram illustrates the design of the interferometer.
The logic of their experiment led to the conclusion that, if the stationary ether existed, then the orbit of the Earth around the Sun would create an “ether wind”. For example, if you ride your bicycle on a calm day from north to south, it feels as if there is a wind in your face and it blows your hair to the north. If you turn around and ride from south to north, it still feels like there is a wind in your face and it blows your hair to the south. Your motion would create the equivalent of wind.
In the same way, the Earth moving through a motionless ether would create an ether wind. It was reasoned that this wind would slow down the speed of a beam of light that was moving directly into the ether wind. If the interferometer was then rotated, one of the light beams would move from travelling directly into the wind to a direction that placed it in a crosswind. This would alter the speed of that beam and it would appear as a measurable change in the interference fringe pattern.
They theorized that the Sun was stationary in regards to its position with the ether. Given that assumption, then, even though the Earth’s orbital ether wind would be much slower than the speed of light, the difference was of a magnitude that should still allow a change in the interference pattern to be measurable. They watched the interference fringe closely, experiment after experiment, and noticed no significant change in the fringe pattern. They concluded that the ether does not exist.
Because of this conclusion Einstein sought for a different explanation on how light traveled. He began by using slit experiments to create interference patterns which he could study. When light is shined through a screen that has a slit, whose size is proportionate to the wavelength of light being used, an interference pattern is created on a screen behind it.
Einstein noticed that the interference pattern seemed to grow, dot by dot. He concluded that these dots were caused by particles travelling along with the beam of light. He decided to call these particles “light quantums”. However, from here on out, those particles will be referred to as “photons”. It was because of these particles that it was concluded that light has a duality of nature; that it has the characteristics of both a particle and a wave. Einstein reasoned that, since there was no medium in outer space through which the propagation of a pattern of motion could occur, then light waves must be some sort of wavy shaped objects that move independently. And, since objects that radiate light do not simultaneously lose mass, the light waves must be made out of mass-less energy. It was also believed that since a wave of light has no mass, and a particle is associated with the wave, then the particle must also have no mass.
Right then and there, the theorists should have stopped short: A wavy shaped object with no mass and a particle with no mass? How is such a thing possible? It’s an interesting idea, but before taking even one more step in pursuing that theory, one would need to first explain exactly what these things actually are. First, we have a theory that believes the ether to be rigid and mass-less. Now we have another theory about various objects with no mass.
How could waves and particles be objects and yet have no mass? How can this be demonstrated by any and all of the known laws and facts of science? How can one explain exactly what they are made of? How can they be disconnected from matter and still exist? It doesn’t matter if one’s logic and experimental evidence seems to point to a conclusion. Logic can be flawed. Data can be misinterpreted. Assumptions can be totally wrong. Explain this first before proceeding with the theory, and then PROVE IT!
These concepts were never proven. Scientists just added more theories with nature defying explanations and bulldozed on ahead, adding theory to theory. As a result, today modern science has a stack of theories and no real answers. It’s almost like having bad credit. If one borrows more money without first paying off previous debts, the indebtedness spirals out of control and ends up in bankruptcy. Each new theory was built upon a previous unproved theory. The “debt” grew and grew. It is spiraling out of control. Today, the biggest question facing science is “Dark matter” and “Dark energy”. These are more theories piled atop other theories that are unprovable, which all fail to explain the inconsistencies of actual experimental observations with accepted laws of science. They are trying to “build a model of the solar system with the Earth at the center”. One wrong initial assumption has snowballed into a giant avalanche of errors.
Everything we know about waves tells us that waves are not objects, but are just patterns of motion that absolutely MUST travel through a medium of some kind. When the Michelson-Morley experiment returned negative results, the reasoning of scientists failed. Their one and only correct intelligent response should have been: “Something is definitely wrong with these results. There HAS TO BE a medium of some kind. There is no other way for waves to travel. They MUST propagate through something. We must look again!”
Einstein went in a different direction. He transformed space and time into objects with magical abilities. Waves and particles became mass-less phantom-like objects. He departed from reason and science and ventured into fantasy land in order to chase unicorns and ghosts. He saw a lot of them.
All that is needed in order to correctly understand an interference fringe pattern is to completely ignore Einstein’s interpretation of it. It is not a pattern that is created by particles flying through space and striking the screen like little tiny bullets fired from a gun. It is an image of the ether! The particles didn’t travel along with the beam of light. They were already there in the first place, floating in space and everywhere, like a super concentrated fog comprised entirely of sub-atomic particles. The pattern of the propagation motion of light waves caused the particles that were floating in front of the screen to bump into the atoms of the screen. This caused the atoms in the screen to change their appearance with the same pattern. An analogy might be that the dots on the screen were sort of like “footprints” left behind by the ether.
Another examination of the Michelson-Morley experiment revealed some of the most tragic things ever to occur in science. It became apparent that they had made some MAJOR mistakes. The first mistake they made is that they stared at that interference pattern for hours, hoping to see a change that might indicate the ether existed. They failed to realize that, just as the presence of sound is proof that the air exists, the presence of the interference pattern itself was the proof that the ether existed. They were staring at it the whole time and never realized or properly understood the meaning of what it was they were actually seeing.
The second mistake they made was in the logic of their entire experiment. That logic was flawed in many ways. First, their assumption that the ether would be completely motionless and mass-less was not only incorrect, but the concept itself makes no rational sense at all. In order for the ether to be able to allow light waves to propagate through it, it would have to be made out of particles of matter, similar to how the air or water are made out of particles of matter.
The application of the concept of being mass-less seems to resolve one problem, but it simultaneously creates an even larger problem. Something that is mass-less would not be able to collide with objects in order to allow propagation to occur. After all, if being mass-less explained why the ether wouldn't interfere with the motion of matter, it does so because there is no physical contact with the matter. How then could an atom initiate propagation when it can't come into contact with the medium? The mass-less theory is an impossible paradox. Besides all of that, there is simply no such thing as a mass-less object. The concept is sheer fantasy. Further details of how the concept of mass-less objects and forces violates the laws of science is provided in the Analysis topic "The Energy of Motion".
The fact that confirms what the actual nature of a medium of propagation must be uses the air as an example. The particles that make up the air are essential to allow for sound wave propagation. A vibrating object situated in the air transfers its motion to adjacent air particles by physically bumping into them. That pattern of motion transfers from one particle to the next like hand-offs in a relay race. And yet, not only is the air not mass-less, but the air also is not, and cannot be, stationary. In order for the air to not interfere with the spinning of the Earth, the air absolutely must move right along with the spinning Earth.
Compare this concept to another medium of propagation for waves. That is, the water. Imagine what it would be like if the oceans were completely motionless and rigid. The only way to achieve that would be to freeze them solid. Sound and light could still propagate through the ocean. However, no atomic objects would be able to travel through it at all. Fish would be unable to move, and even gigantic ships would be paralyzed. In order for a medium of propagation to not interfere with the motion of objects that exist within that medium, that medium must move. Every planet, star and galaxy that we can see in the universe is spinning and orbiting. The ether MUST be doing the same. Otherwise, the ether would be like an immense tar pit that would cause all atomic motion to grind to a halt.
A serious flaw in Michelson’s and Morley’s mindset is revealed by their belief that the ether was motionless. That belief required that the ether also be mass-less. That requirement, in and of itself, should have been enough proof to convince them that a motionless ether was therefore not possible. Rather than reevaluating the theory that the ether was motionless, they instead chose to firmly adhere to the belief that the concept of a mass-less object could actually be valid.
Had they even considered an alternative? What if the ether was moving right along with the spinning Earth, just as our atmosphere moves right along with the spinning Earth? In that case, then there would be no ether wind at all. As a result, no change in the interference pattern would be detected no matter how many times the experiment was performed. One cannot just assume that one’s theories are correct. The validity of the entire theory must also be established by the experiment. Their theories about the nature of the ether needed to be considered as being open to revisions. Obviously, they didn't think so. And so, the correct answer to the question “Does the ether exist?” as determined by the parameters of their experiment should have been; “INCONCLUSIVE. MORE DATA REQUIRED.”
Scientist’s expectations that the speed of light should vary with the speed of atomic objects comes from observing the behavior of atomic objects in motion. When light’s speed did not vary right along with atomic speed variations, scientists got confused and resorted to irrational theories to try and explain the anomaly (a motionless ether). They never anticipated the ether to be comprised of purely sub-atomic particles that are in continuous motion. An ether with a constant and unchanging rate of continuous motion has the same effect as an ether with a constant and unchanging rate of zero motion. Both environments result in the ether having a fixed and constant inertial reference. Both result in the speed of light not changing even though atomic speeds do change. However, there is a big difference between the concepts of a stationary ether versus an ether in motion.
Even though a motionless ether would provide an explanation for light's unusual behavior, the concept is illogical. Everything else in space is moving, and mediums that we can see are also able to move. Additionally, the concept of a mass-less ether (or any mass-less object) creates an impossible paradox. That paradox goes beyond just the question of "How can something not affect the motion of matter while simultaneously being able to be affected by the motion of matter so that a wave could be created in it?" Even more so, if the entire ether could not affect the motion of objects because it was mass-less, then how could a mass-less wave that moved through a mass-less ether suddenly be able to have any effect on an object?
Whereas, an ether made of particles in motion satisfies four necessary requirements without any paradoxes. First, the particles of matter that comprise the ether allow for the traditional and scientifically law-abiding mechanical propagation of waves. Second, its constant motion provides the environment needed to explain the anomalous "constant speed" behavior of light. Third, an ether in motion allows objects in space to move without being hindered by its presence. The fact that all planets, stars and galaxies spin and orbit at constant speeds requires the ether to also move at the same constant speeds. Fourth, the behavior of mediums of propagation that we are familiar with and can detect, such as the air and the water, also move and do not hinder the motion of objects. Those mediums provide the clues that teach us what characteristics the ether must possess. In other words, the ether absolutely must exist, it must be made of physical particles, and those particles must be in motion. The details of ether motion are revealed in Chapter 4 “The Ether; A Broad Look” and in the Analysis topic “Sub Atomic Motion”. For now, suffice to say that the perpetual motion of the particles that fill the ether causes it to behave in a way similar to that of water.
The speed of propagation of a wave depends upon the medium of propagation. Sound waves travel at a certain speed through air. Even so, that speed can vary according to the air pressure and composition. Sound propagates even faster through water, and even faster through metal. A wave that propagates through sub-atomic particles can move at the speed of light.
Imagine a medium of propagation that is in motion, like a river flowing with a fast current. Also imagine throwing a baseball into that river. It does not matter how fast you throw it. If you expect the ball’s speed and the river’s speed to combine into a totally different speed, you will be disappointed. The water will quickly absorb the ball’s energy and disperse it throughout the entire river. The ball will almost immediately acquire the same speed as the river current.
The ether causes a similar effect with light. As soon as a beam of light is emitted, any surplus speed that it has is immediately absorbed and spread out into the ether, and the light then propagates at the standard speed of propagation (the speed of light). It all happens so fast, that science is unable to detect the process. This is why the speed of light does not seem to change even though the speed of the object emitting the light does change.
Because of this effect, even if the ether had motion that was different than the Earth’s motion, a beam of light would still reveal no detectable change in speed no matter which way the beam was travelling in relation to the ether motion. In other words, assuming the ether exists, whether it was stationary, or moving in the same speed and direction as the Earth, or moving in the opposite direction of the Earth, the Michelson-Morley experiment would have achieved the exact same results. That is, “NO CHANGE IN THE INTERFERENCE PATTERN IS OBSERVED.”
THE EXISTENCE OF AN INTERFERENCE PATTERN IS PROOF THAT THE ETHER EXISTS. THE FACT THAT THE ETHER DOES NOT HINDER THE MOTION OF THE PLANETS AND STARS IS PROOF THAT IT IS IN MOTION. THE FACT THAT THE INTERFERENCE PATTERN DIDN’T CHANGE IS PROOF THAT THE ETHER HAS CONSTANT AND UNCHANGING MOTION.
A huge series of errors in logic, reasoning, and faulty theories led to a tragically incorrect experimental conclusion. The really remarkable thing about all of this is; how is it possible that Michelson and Morley accepted such an irrational concept as a mass-less object? How could they have completely ignored the obvious need for the ether to have mass so that propagation could occur? Why didn’t they even conceive of a scenario of the ether in motion? Their experimental conclusion indicates that they ignored all of these things and instead clung tightly to their theories.
Their errors didn’t stop there. They based their interpretation of the outcome upon the belief that the Sun was stationary in relation the ether. Didn’t they realize that the Sun is not stationary? It is moving around the galaxy at close to 500,000 mph. That’s almost ten times greater than Earth’s orbital speed. Did they think that the ether was moving right along with the Sun so as to create an inertial difference between them of zero? Doesn’t that contradict their theory that the ether was motionless? Did they realize that the entire galaxy is flying through space at an even faster speed? If the ether was truly motionless in relation to all other matter, then the ether winds would be enormous. It seems as if they did not even expect this.
Not only were their expectations completely wrong, but the performance of their experiment was irrational. They reasoned that a beam of light heading directly into the ether wind would experience the maximum possible reduction in speed that the ether wind could cause. Then, rotating the interferometer at an angle would result in the beam travelling in a crosswind. This would cause a lesser reduction in speed by that same wind. Although that would be true if their theory was correct, then why not rotate the interferometer completely around (180 degrees)? This would change the direction of the beam from travelling directly into a headwind to travelling with a tailwind. This would provide the maximum possible alteration in the speed and the maximum change in the appearance of the interference fringe pattern.
Ultimately, it doesn’t even matter that their performance of the experiment was flawed. That is because they used the completely wrong device to do the experiment. The interferometer is a wonderful device for detecting changes in the distance a beam of light travels. If either mirror is moved even slightly closer to or farther away from the splitter, the interference fringe pattern will change. However, it is utterly useless for detecting changes in the speed of either of the beams of light that might be caused by an ether wind.
Look again at the previous diagram of the interferometer. Its ability to detect differences in the two beams requires that the two beams be redirected onto the same viewing screen for comparison. That means that both beams must make a round trip so that they can be reunited.
The beam that hits mirror #1 would experience an ether headwind and have the maximum possible reduction in its speed on its way to the mirror. However, after bouncing off the mirror, it would experience an ether tailwind on its return trip to the splitter. This would cause it to attain the maximum possible increase in its speed. As a result, the outbound decrease in speed, and the return trip increase in speed would cancel out. The beam would return to the splitter in the same amount of time as if there was no ether wind at all. It does not matter how the interferometer is rotated. Because the beam makes a round trip, the subtractions and additions will always exactly cancel out.
Is it any wonder then, that the result of their experiment was “No change in the interference pattern was detected”? And yet, it is because there was no change in the pattern that it was concluded that the ether does not exist. How is it possible that no scientist, in the century since the Michelson and Morley experiment was performed, has noticed their errors? Perhaps the fact that no one has yet noticed is the very thing that contributes to the ongoing belief that Michelson’s and Morley’s conclusion does not require a re-evaluation.
The Michelson-Morley conclusion is why, even to this very day, scientists still do not believe that the ether exists. However, the errors are so obvious, that it is difficult to accept that so many scientists since then could overlook such simple, basic, fundamental and monumental mistakes. This mistake is so immensely incomprehensible, it is why many might readily jump to the conclusion that the error lies in this analysis and not in the Michelson- Morley results.
Because of the Michelson-Morley mistake, Einstein created his theory to try and explain how a universe could function without a medium of propagation; without the ether. He had to bend time and space and invent ghosts (mass-less waves, particles, fields and forces) in order to make it seem like his explanation worked. And all scientists since Einstein have built upon his theory. And, to this very day, the Theory of Relativity still must be classified as a theory. Not only have none of Einstein’s concepts been proven to be true, but it will forever be impossible to do so. That is because his entire theory is completely wrong and totally impossible. His theory was built upon the crumbling foundation of a huge amount of careless errors. As a result, his theory is perhaps the greatest error of them all.
It is as if scientists are like repairmen who have completely disassembled a device and thoroughly tested every component of it to try and figure out why they can’t get it to work, without first checking the most basic and simple reason for the device’s failure. That is, to go back to step one and verify that it is plugged in.
Scientists need to go back to step one and verify the existence of the ether. They seem to have developed the bad practice of misinterpreting the data in order to force it to fit their theories. Instead, they must eliminate all assumptions and theories and allow the data to reveal the truth of what is really going on. If they follow the laws of science and disregard all the theories, they will find the ether. And when they do, they will see how everything in the universe actually works. They will see the Unified Force in action!
What proof is there that the ether does exist? Just as the presence of sound is proof that the atmosphere exists, the presence of things like “light” and interference patterns is the proof that the ether exists. Subsequent chapters will reveal even more proofs that the ether most definitely exists.
Not only does the ether exist, but it moves. The unique manner in which it moves and the things that make it move are described in Chapter 4 “The Ether: A Broad Look”, Chapter 5 “The Electron and Light” and Chapter 6 “The Electron and Magnetism”. The explanation as to how and why the ether is able to do the remarkable things that it does is explained in Chapter 12 “The Smallest Picture” and in the Analysis topic “Sub-Atomic Motion”.
Chapter 4 -THE ETHER: A BROAD LOOK
COPYRIGHT © 2017, By Jonathan P. Volkel
It is not enough to just demonstrate that time dilation is wrong and why it is wrong. Explanations as to how things really do work are required in order to complete the picture. Therefore, it now becomes necessary to provide the explanation of what the ether is and an overview of how it behaves. Scientists are already aware that there are more forces at work in the universe than can be accounted for by just the planets, stars and galaxies that we can see. They attribute these mysterious extra forces to things like “Dark Matter” and “Dark Energy”. They never realized that these other mysterious forces come from the ether in motion.
In order to get a mental image of the ether, perhaps try imagining this. Imagine an incredibly dense fog on a calm and windless night. The ether exists all around us just as that fog would exist all around us. However, there are differences between a conventional fog and the ether. First of all, the particles that fill the ether are not water droplets. Instead, they are photons. They are smaller than even the smallest atomic component, the electron. As such, they even float around in the spaces between atoms. Each individual photon continuously moves with “light speed” motion. Because of their sub-atomic size and high-speed motion, they are invisible.
The motion of a single photon is extremely simple to understand. That is, at any given time, a single photon can only move at one constant speed in only one single direction. That speed and direction cannot change unless something else makes it change. That “something else” is a collision with another photon or an atom.
Even though the behavior of a single photon is simple and easy to understand, the behavior of many different photons all moving at once can be quite complex. The astronomically huge quantity of all of the photons that together comprise the entire ether makes all of their combined motion something that is beyond imagining. Scientists could not recognize or understand what the ether really was because they were seeking it with eyes accustomed to only observing atomic motion. Thus, they imagined the ether as being completely motionless.
The ether is an environment of purely sub-atomic motion, and it is an environment that we are not familiar with. Atomic motion involves observing and understanding the behavior of many different objects joined together and moving as a unit. It is the only type of motion of objects that we have ever seen. Sub-atomic motion involves understanding the motion of individual objects that exist all by themselves and move one at a time. It is a type of motion that has never been seen.
At first, the ether’s behavior will seem strange, but that’s only because we’re so accustomed to thinking of things in terms of the macro atomic world that we see and live with every day. The ether will be introduced slowly and in stages. It is not until after the Analysis topic “Sub-Atomic Motion” that all will be crystal clear. For now; we must advance only one step at a time.
The ether does exist. Think of it like an ocean that encompasses the entire universe. Instead of being filled with water, the universe is filled with photons. Every planet, star and galaxy that exists is “submerged” and “floating” within that ether ocean.
To understand the way that light travels through this vast “ocean”, compare it to the Newton balls pendulum or to a line of billiard balls. Line up a half dozen or so billiard balls in a straight line, each one touching the next. Gently strike the cue ball so that it strikes the first ball. Instantaneously, the last ball will move away with the same gentle force that the cue ball had. Strike the cue ball harder so that it is moving faster when it hits the first ball. Instantaneously the last ball will fly away with the very same fast speed that the cue ball had. The speed with which the cue ball strikes the first ball has no effect on the rate with which the energy propagates through the line of balls. The speed of the cue ball only determines how much energy propagates. NO MATTER HOW HARD YOU STRIKE THE FIRST BALL, THE PROPAGATION OF ENERGY THROUGH ALL THE TOUCHING BALLS IS INSTANTANEOUS AND CONSTANT.
In the above example, the balls were all touching one another. This resulted in an instantaneous or infinite speed for the energy to travel from one end of the continuous line of matter to the other end. Light has a speed limit (not infinite). This tells us that the photons are not in continuous contact with one another. This reveals that the speed of light is a function of how fast each photon travels. It takes time for one photon to travel to, and then come into physical contact with, another photon. But, when it strikes the next photon, its energy instantaneously transfers into the next photon. The process repeats over and over again in a chain reaction of collisions and energy transfers known as “propagation”. Thus, the speed of light is regulated by the speed of a photon.
The phrase “the speed of light” can be misleading. Science has assigned a specific numerical value to that phrase. This might tend to lead to the belief that all light travels only at that one speed. It doesn’t. It has already been experimentally verified that light travels at different speeds, depending upon what it is travelling through. For example, light has been proven to travel slower through water and glass. When the phrase “the speed of light” is used in a context that suggests only one specific constant speed, it really means “the speed of light through a vacuum”. It is a reference to the speed at which light travels in outer space. That speed is approximately 186,000 miles per second.
The photons that make up the ether are extremely small (smaller than electrons), extremely numerous, very close to one another, and are all moving at very high speed (light speed). They move in random directions which results in them continuously colliding with one another. The quantity of collisions that occur per second in even a tiny section of space is an almost unimaginable amount. This activity creates intense vibration within any atomic object immersed in and surrounded by that medium. When all of this activity remains random, the general position of a single photon remains relatively constant. That is, a photon gets bounced back and forth so much that, for the most part, after a period of time, it ends up right back where it started. When looked at as a whole, the entire ether ocean is “stationary” in this condition. That is, there are no ether currents.
If atomic motion is applied to the photons from a single direction, the motion of the photons becomes less random. The applied motion alters the pattern of their vibration. They move less randomly and more in the direction of the applied motion. This results in a chain reaction of collisions that propagates right on through the ether. If this pattern of motion is applied continuously, a localized pattern of heightened directional motion will develop within the ether. This causes a finite section of the ether to move more than the rest of the randomly moving ether. This creates an ether current within the ether ocean.
To envision this, think of the oceans on Earth. Imagine the warm Gulf Stream racing north near the surface of the ocean. The cold arctic waters in the north would simultaneously form a current that travels south deeper down in the ocean. Nearby, the Sargasso Sea contains a totally stagnant unmoving area of water. In some other place, a whirlpool forms pulling down ships caught in its effect. Fifty feet away from the whirlpool, the water is perfectly calm.
A photon can be bouncing back and forth randomly and will remain in the same general place where it started, and so can be considered as if it were “standing still”. A photon could also be bouncing back and forth in a less random way, resulting in its position advancing more in one direction through space. If many photons are moving together in a less random and more linear direction (becoming an ether current), and we are standing still relative to that, we would notice a variation in the measured speed of light. If we were moving right along at a constant speed with the same linear direction of the moving photons, we would not notice a variation in the measured speed of light. In other words, depending upon the situation, our inertial reference could be different from that of the ether, or the same as the inertial reference of the ether. It all depends upon whether or not we are in the same ether current as the light we are looking at. Here on Earth, our speed is constant in relation to that of the linear motion of the photons in our immediate vicinity. Because of that, we always measure the same speed for light.
The ether not only moves, but it can also move in synchronization with our movement. How and why this happens will be explained in the chapters that follow. Suffice to say that, as long as the inertial reference (motion) of the ether is always constant when compared to our inertial reference, we will not notice any changes in the measured speed for light. The true nature of what a photon is and why finite speeds exist for light will be revealed in Chapter 12. For now, it is easier for us to maintain the present understanding that science has taught us regarding the nature of a photon. That is, it is mass-less and propagates at a constant speed. Although this understanding is inaccurate, it will do for now.
As stated in Chapter 3, the ether must be in motion so that it does not interfere with the motion of atomic objects. However, the ether does not move so as to “get out of the way” of atomic objects in motion like the way water does. Instead, the ether’s motion merges with and matches the motion of atomic objects. This is a type of behavior that Michelson and Morley did not anticipate, and it contributed to their erroneous conclusion.
Atoms cause photons to change their motion, and likewise, photons also cause atoms to change their motion. The atoms and the photons mirror each other’s motion, creating the spinning universe that we live in. One specific configuration of atomic motion creates a very special pattern of photon motion. That pattern of photon motion manifests as an effect that we call “gravity”.
Gravity was always thought of as being an invisible and intangible force that works at a distance. It is believed that it travels through the nothingness of empty space in some mysterious way. At least, that is the best explanation for gravity that science could come up with without allowing for the existence of the ether.
Actually, gravity is a specific pattern of photon motion that propagates through the ether. Gravity seems to “exert a pull” on atoms only because it is moving the photons of the ether. When those moving photons come into contact with other atoms, those atoms move. And so, moving atoms cause photons to move, which in turn causes other atoms to move. It is similar to fluid coupling.
However, thanks to the properties of the photons makeup, gravity’s particular pattern of photon motion results in atoms moving towards one another. If the motion of photons caused by gravity is weak in a certain place, the nature of the ether might prevent other nearby photons from barely moving at all (because the area is so crowded with photons). But if the gravity induced motion of photons is persistent and strong enough, just as with the movement of water, the persistence of the continuing pattern of motion will cause a chain reaction of motion, and clusters of photons will begin to move along a single pathway. A current consisting of moving photons will be formed in the ether ocean.
Realization of the existence of ether currents solves all the inconsistencies found with the observations made regarding the speed of light. It is the propagation of light through “stationary” photons that causes the average speed of light to seem to be constant. Currents in the ether give the ether an inertial reference other than that of “stationary”. Light that is riding the current still propagates through at a constant speed, but the photons that they are propagating through are moving more in one specific direction. This means that the light is travelling faster than the usual measurements of the speed of light. Although the light within the current is still propagating from photon to photon at the average speed of light, the total momentum is greater than the speed of light.
If a beam of light rides ether currents, then its cumulative speed can be faster than what we would typically measure. If its motion was being measured from within that same current, then the standard speed and behavior for light would be measured. If measured from a position outside of the ether current, a difference in the speed and behavior of the light would be noticed.
This matching of inertial reference to the currents that move within the ether solves ALL the discrepancies in light experiments without the need of non-provable and impossible imaginary anomalies such as time dilation or spatial distortion. Ether currents explain why space might seem to be expanding or contracting. As far as the speed of light is concerned, even though the propagation of the light waves is riding on a current which causes the propagation to arrive at its destination sooner or later than expected (depending upon the direction of the current), the inertial reference within the current still results in the speed of light being relatively constant. When comparing inertial references between atoms and ether, the inertial references of the ether currents must be taken into consideration. As will become clearer later on; the ether current moves in the opposite direction of matter composed of atoms.
In the case of the planet Earth, the current is the same no matter where you are on the planet. Is the current moving to your left, or are you moving to the right? Or is it a little bit of both? Ultimately, it doesn’t matter. You will get the same answer either way. In other words, no matter where you are on Earth, the current is always flowing in exactly the opposite direction of your movement at exactly the same rate as your movement. This is difficult to imagine right now. That is because we are only accustomed to the way things work here, in the realm of atomic matter. It requires a bit of out-of-the-box/reverse thinking in order to analyze sub-atomic motion. As the explanation continues and the grand picture unfolds, the relationship between atoms and the ether will grow clearer and clearer.
It is important to differentiate between artificially created inertia and natural inertia. Artificial inertia is created by any type of movement caused by something other than the natural forces of nature. It is the redirection of inertia into momentum in a way that is contrary to the natural forces of inertia in the vicinity. Artificially induced inertia creates changes in the moving object’s inertial reference without simultaneously affecting the ether’s inertial reference.
An example of artificial inertia would be a rocket ship travelling through space. It easily transfers its inertia to all the atomic objects inside the ship. Does it induce photon inertia and thereby cause currents to be formed in the ether? The answer is: barely. The ship does generate its own gravity field but it is very weak. It is also travelling in a very linear direction, and the atoms of the ship do interact with the photons they encounter. However, the surrounding environment is filled with photons that have very non-linear and random vibrations, and they are barely affected by the rocket ship’s motion.
Compare the situation to a ship travelling on the ocean. Does it create a current that follows it? NO. At best it creates turbulence behind it which quickly dissipates into the surrounding water after the ship is gone. In space, it is possible to encounter areas where your directional inertia is very great, but the relative directional inertia of the ether is zero. All the concepts that apply to fluid behavior on Earth apply to the ether.
Ether currents are also formed by the motion of atoms. One ship passing through the ocean only creates some turbulence behind it which quickly dissipates. An armada of ships travelling along the same path can start to create a current. In a similar way, an entire planet spinning in space creates a whirlpool in the ether. If you are on the planet’s surface, then the current is constant in relation to you. On Earth, along the equator, you are moving at about 1,000 mph in one direction while the ether current is moving at about 1,000 mph in the opposite direction. To you, it would appear and feel as if you were stationary and that the current is whizzing by at about 2,000 mph. No matter where you go on Earth, the ether current will always seem to be moving by at double what your actual speed is. But, no matter how it looks or feels, your inertia reference in relation to it will always be constant.
Remember the boxcar experiment from Chapter 2? If the boxcar was in space and standing still in relation to the ether (in other words, drifting along with the ether current in that place) then the inertial difference between it and the ether is close to zero. If the boxcar starts moving at speeds close to the speed of light, that inertial difference has changed. The ether current’s inertial reference has not changed, but the boxcar’s inertial reference has. Thus, although the speed at which light travels through that area of the ether is unchanged, its inertial reference is no longer the same as the boxcar’s.
When the boxcar was standing still, the beam of light had the same inertial reference as the boxcar. When the boxcar started moving very fast, the light no longer had the same inertial reference as the boxcar because, even though the boxcar is now moving, the ether is not moving along with it. Technically, the light from the laser emitter isn’t moving through the boxcar. It’s moving through the ether. The boxcar and the ether just happen to be occupying the same space. The results of experiments within the boxcar that use light as the “measuring stick” will start to achieve contradictory results.
Think about how this affects us here on Earth. The mass of the Earth is large enough to create a photon whirlpool that matches the inertia of the Earth’s spin. However, the whirlpool is moving in the opposite direction of the Earth’s rotation. At first, this seems to make no sense. That’s because we are accustomed to thinking in terms of matter composed of atoms. Why the reverse action happens will be explained in the chapters that follow. Understand then that the difference between the Earth’s speed and the ether’s speed doesn’t change. That difference in speeds may vary from one place to another, but, once you are in that place, that difference will not change. That is because the Earth is spinning at a constant and unchanging rate, and so is the ether.
What would happen on an orbiting space station? Up there, outside of the atmosphere and away from dense concentrations of atoms, the only thing creating ether currents would be a micro gravity effect combined with Earth’s magnetic ether current. The ether current would be very slow. The difference between the inertia of the space station and the inertia of the ether would be large. It would still make no difference. As long as you are moving at a constant speed, then the ether current remains constant in relation to you at that place. The difference between your speed and the ether’s speed could be larger, but it would still be constant and unchanging. The logic of using something that is moving at a constant an unchanging speed, like the spinning of the Earth, as a “variable” to make comparisons to the ether is pointless. It is the spinning of the Earth that created the ether current in that place, and that current is constant and does not vary because the spinning speed of the Earth is constant and does not vary.
The difference in the inertial references between the ether and objects coasting at various constant speeds in different places explains the discrepancies that occur within atomic clocks. An atomic clock fires a beam of light at some sort of sensor which counts the wavelengths of light. The correct number of wavelengths equals one second. In an atomic clock, the light emitter and the light sensor are at a fixed distance from one another. If the atomic clock moves, then all of its components (including the clock’s emitter and sensor) move together at the same speed. And so, whether in space or on Earth, the inertial reference of the atomic clock’s emitter, compared to the inertial reference of the atomic clock’s sensor is always exactly equal. Everything should work fine; Right? No, it won’t! It’s not the inertial reference from the emitter to the sensor that matters. It’s the inertial reference from the emitter to the ether that matters.
Although the difference in the inertial references of the emitter to the ether are constant on Earth and in an orbiting atomic clock in outer space, THE DIFFERENCES ARE NOT THE SAME AS EACH OTHER. To understand why this affects the measured rate of the passage of time as determined by an atomic clock, it is important to remember that atomic clocks do not determine the passage of time based upon the speed of light. Instead, they determine the passage of time based upon the shape of a wave of light. If that wave changes its shape by stretching out and getting longer, it takes more time for one full cycle of that wave to pass by the clock’s sensor. If that wave squeezes together and gets shorter, then it takes less time for one full cycle of that wave to pass by the clock’s sensor. And so, the clock will appear to be running either slower or faster, depending upon if and how the wave was altered. But, how do the different speeds of atomic clocks in motion cause the shape of the wave to change?
Here’s an illustration that might help visualize what’s really going on. Imagine a boat on the water, and the boat is moving at a constant speed. As such, there is an inertial difference between the boat and the water, but that difference remains constant. Imagine tossing a series of balls overboard into the water at a constant and steady rate (for example, exactly 1 per second). Doing so results in the balls that fall into the water having a fixed and constant distance between one another.
But what happens if the boat speeds up or slows down, while still tossing the balls at the same rate? The spacing between the balls in the water will change. If the boat speeds up, the balls that are being tossed into the water will end up being farther apart from one another. If the boat slows down, the spacing of the balls tossed into the water will end up being closer together. It doesn’t matter whether the balls are tossed off the side, the back or the front of the boat. It doesn’t matter if they are tossed in the same or opposite direction that the boat is moving in. As long as the speed of the boat remains constant, the spacing between the balls in the water will be the same no matter the direction. Only if the speed of the boat changes will the spacing between the balls also change.
It’s not actually the speed of the boat or the speed of the water that really matters. What matters is the difference between their speeds. The boat represents the atomic clock. The water represents the ether. The rate of tossing the balls represents the frequency of light being emitted by the atomic clocks. The shape of the wave (wavelength) emitted by the atomic clock is represented by the spacing between the balls.
At this point one might think; “Hold on! The light wave emitter and the light wave counter are both in the same atomic clock. They have the same inertial reference. They should get a constant and unchanging result.” This is where it can get confusing. To use the previous analogy, it’s like having one person in the front of the boat who tosses balls into the water, and another person in the back of the same boat that looks into the water and counts them. If the person in the front is tossing the balls into the water at the rate of one per second, then it doesn’t matter how fast the boat is moving. The person at the back will always see them go by at the rate of one per second. So then, why would the atomic clock measure the wrong time?
The problem lies within the logic of the method that the atomic clock uses to determine the passage of time. It doesn’t actually keep track of the time. It calculates the time. To again use the previous analogy, the logic of the atomic clock essentially requires that the person in the back of the boat that is watching the balls in the water do something other than measure time. He is not timing how long it takes for each ball to pass by. What he is doing is measuring the distance between the balls that pass by. That distance is then multiplied by a predetermined fixed speed value to then calculate the amount of time that passed. Although that it not exactly what the clock does, counting the number of waves that goes by boils down to the fact that the wavelength (the distance between the peaks of the wave) is the determining factor in calculating the elapsed time.
The designers of the clock assumed that the wavelength would never change. In fact, they went to great pains to create an emitter that would reliably create a constant and unchanging frequency. They assumed that the distance between the wave peaks would be solely determined by the frequency of the light wave emitter. Also, the speed value would also never change because the speed of light is considered to be constant. The problem is that the creators of the atomic clock never realized that the distance between the wave peaks does change, thanks to a change in the difference between the clock’s motion and the ether’s motion.
In terms of the atomic clock, when the clock becomes mobile, its inertial reference in relation to the ether changes. If an atomic clock has a greater difference between its speed and the ether's speed, it will cause the wavelengths of light created by the light wave emitter to spread out and lengthen. Since the speed of light is considered as being constant, this results in it taking more time to count one full wave of light. Because the designers of the atomic clock chose to determine the passage of time by counting a predetermined quantity of waves, then lengthening the waves lengthens the time it takes to count all of the required waves. The clock appears to be running slower.
A satellite in orbit around the Earth is moving very fast (close to 30,000 mph.) The inertial difference between it and the ether around it is far greater than the inertial difference between an atomic clock on Earth’s surface and the ether current at Earth’s surface. As a result, an atomic clock on that satellite will experience the same effect as a boat on the water that increased its cruising speed. The spacing between the balls in the water will be farther apart. In other words, although the frequency of light being emitted by the atomic clock remains constant, the wavelength of that light will increase (stretch out), resulting in it taking more time to count one wave. The clock will appear to be running slower.
This effect, which alters the shape of a wave, is already known and documented by science. It is called a Doppler shift. The problem is that science does not realize that the ether exists. They think that space is a true vacuum. They think the speed of light is constant. Because they believe all of that, they find that they have no other way to explain or understand the time keeping problem other than by attributing it to time dilation. But, as seen in Chapter 2, there is no such thing as time dilation.
If the rate of movement of an object is constant compared to the rate of movement of the ether current that it is in, everything appears normal. If the rate of movement of the object changes so that the difference between its speed and the ether's speed increases, light waves will appear to be red shifted. If the rate of movement of the object changes so that the difference between its speed and the ether's speed decreases, light waves will appear to be blue shifted. If two objects are in different ether currents, it can become difficult to determine if the objects are moving towards each other or not by just looking at the Doppler shift. In order to correctly understand what is really going on, both ether currents must first be determined. Any difference in those currents must be included in the calculations that attempt to determine direction of motion. This makes it extremely difficult to use Doppler shift to tell if very distant objects in space are actually moving towards us or away from us, because we do not know the speed of their ether current.
As to the currents formed in the ether by gravity, it is important to remember that the ether is to be considered as almost un-compressible and that the ether is to be treated as a closed system. With this understanding of the ether in place, the behavior of ether currents is as logical as water currents in the ocean. A huge mass with large gravity fields, such as the Sun, would create strong gravity induced currents that move both away and towards it (they circulate). The currents flowing out of the Sun also circle around and flow right back into the Sun and merge with the immense ether whirlpool that exists within it because of its large spinning mass. There cannot be a "vacuum" within the ether. What goes out must flow back in. And, what flows in must also flow back out again. It is a continuous loop. At certain points on the Sun’s surface the ether currents are slower than at the rest of the Sun's surface. It is at those places that external ether currents can re-enter the Sun.
This would mean that a theoretical object like a Black Hole, which continuously sucks things in and nothing comes out, would be impossible. GRAVITY DOES NOT EXERT A PULL UPON LIGHT OR BEND SPACE. Gravity is just a unique pattern of photon motion (a specific type of ether current) which can affect the way that light propagates through that current’s already moving photons. The rate of the propagation of light through the ether is constant and unaffected by gravity. However, the inertial reference of a gravity ether current can cause light to exceed the accepted "constant" speed of light. The ether current could also be against the travel direction of light, causing light to move slower than the accepted "constant" speed of light. And, if an ether current is passing by perpendicular to the path of the light, then, just like firing a bullet in a crosswind, if the wind is slight, the bullet barely deviates from its trajectory. If the crosswind is strong, the trajectory of the bullet will bend.
The experiment that confirms that ether currents can bend the trajectory of light has already been done and has proven that this is correct. Sir Arthur Eddington performed the experiment by taking photographs of space during a total eclipse of the Sun. The results were published in the Illustrated London News in 1919. Sadly, everyone misinterpreted the results. Einstein thought his calculations determined to what extent gravity was bending space. Space can’t be bent. What he accidentally calculated was to what extent ether currents move near the Sun. In Chapter 6 “The Electron and Magnetism”, a picture depicting ether currents around a large mass is shown. Eddington’s results will suddenly make sense. The Analysis topic "Relativity" will show how and why Einstein made his mistake and why the results of the Eddington experiment were misinterpreted. In the Analysis topic “Magnetic Fields”, exactly how and why these currents flow and why they travel in the path that they do is explained.
This has been just the groundwork for understanding the basic nature of the ether. What has been explained so far is incomplete, but it is enough information to keep moving along. As the explanation goes on, understanding will become clearer and clearer. Right now, only a distant glimpse of the “forest” has been shown. As the explanation progresses, the individual “trees” will be discernable. When the explanation is completely finished, every “leaf” will be visible, and what they are, where they came from, and how they got there will be understood. In fact, one of the surprising revelations that lies ahead is that gravity doesn’t actually “pull” on anything.
Realization that the ether exists, combined with an understanding of how and why it moves is the pathway to understanding the Unified Force. All atoms are “submerged” in the ether and are completely surrounded by photons. The concept is similar to that of something immersed under water. The high speed back and forth random motion of the photons results in them colliding with the atoms at an incredible rate. Just as a single photon gets bounced back and forth by its neighbors so much that it ends up right back where it started, so too, the collisions upon the atoms by the photons creates the same result for the atoms. And so, since the motion induced into the atom by the photons is random, the atom’s resultant motion causes it to also end up right back where it started.
This high-speed bombardment upon the atoms by so many surrounding photons results in the back-and-forth motion manifesting in the atoms as vibration. The photon motion also behaves like a surrounding pressure which compels the substance of the atom to move towards the center of itself, similar to how water creates pressure around air that is submerged in it to form the air into spherical bubbles. This ether pressure is one of the main components that makes gravity work. Scientists had always believed that both atomic vibration and the center seeking gravity effect originated from within the atom. They don't. The source of these effects is external. They are caused by the ether.
Not only do photons collide with the atoms, but increased atomic motion causes the atoms to come into contact with many more photons than is usual. The photons that the atom collides with move away from the atom. The pattern of all of those photons in motion mirrors (reverses) the pattern of the atom motion that caused them to move. Those photons bump into their neighbors, transferring their motion to other photons. Thus, the pattern of motion created by the atom propagates through the ether like ripples travelling through water. When those ripples encounter another atom, the motion is transferred to that atom. The receiving atom mirrors (reverses) the motion of the photons and thereby duplicates the motion of the sending atom. This process is akin to fluid coupling and has even fooled scientists into believing that a theory like Quantum Entanglement is true.
Different patterns of atomic motion create corresponding patterns of photon motion. Some of those patterns have been given names like “light”, “heat”, “magnetism” and “gravity”. It is important to remember that not any one single photon is responsible for these energies. It is a patterned formation of many photons moving in synchronization that creates the manifestation of a type of energy. The following diagram will illustrate this.
In the above diagram, all of the dots represent photons in motion. All of the photons are moving in the direction indicated by the dark arrows. Each individual photon is only capable of moving at only one constant speed in only one direction at any given moment of time.
Image #1 represents a high frequency wave. High speed back and forth motion (orbital motion) in an atom or in any of its components creates a pattern of motion in the ether that repeats very frequently. This results in the creation of a wave that we identify as having a high frequency. One such type of wave is referred to as “light”. Slightly faster atomic motion creates slightly higher frequencies, such as blue light. If the atom slows down a bit, the pattern of motion changes less frequently, resulting in a lower frequency wave which might manifest as red light. The basics of this is discussed in Chapter 5 “The Electron and Light”.
Image #2 represents an even lower frequency wave. If an atomic component has motion that is even slower, the change in the pattern of photon motion also decreases. Such a wave is changing too slowly for our eyes to detect as light. However, we can still detect that pattern of waves in other ways. Such a wave might be felt by us and identified as radiant heat. The basics of this are discussed in Chapter 9 “The Proton, Heat and the Atom”.
Even slower frequencies can not be sensed by us, but we do utilize them for various purposes, such as radio and telephone communications.
Image #3 depicts one the slowest changing patterns of motion that we can detect. It is created by very slow changes in atomic motion and has an effect on other atoms that have similar patterns of motion. This type of motion through the ether is identified by us as “magnetism”. The basics of this is discussed in Chapter 6 “The Electron and Magnetism”.
Image #4 represents a very unique pattern of photon motion. It is a linear spray of photons that moves through the ether. This spray of photons is created by the atoms, and its pattern resembles the spray pattern that comes out of an aerosol spray can. Atomic motion provides the force that moves the spray. The ether provides the pressure into the atom that continuously “refills the spray can” with photons, creating and endless supply of photons for this process. We call this effect “gravity”.
The basics of how gravity works is discussed in Chapter 8 “The Neutron and Gravity”. Details on how the photons can collide with objects and cause a very unique, seemingly energy free motion in those objects is discussed in Chapter 12 “The Smallest Picture”. The full details on how and why gravity works is discussed in the Analysis topic “Sub-Atomic Motion”.
Chapter 5 -THE ELECTRON AND LIGHT
COPYRIGHT © 2017, By Jonathan P. Volkel
This is the place where the theme of this entire paper will begin to be established: THE UNIFIED FORCE. Up until now, everything that modern science has taught about energy was that there were many different, unrelated kinds, and they used different mathematical formulas to quantify those different energies. Electricity was one kind. Magnetism was another kind which was somehow mysteriously associated with electricity and perhaps is even created by electricity. Gravity is another kind of energy that somehow isn’t even a force at all. Einstein taught us that gravity was instead, a “field” that bends space. Scientists felt that there was some other mysterious unknown energy out there that would somehow tie all these together and have something in common with them.
There is indeed one kind of energy out there that all of those other effects have in common. However, it will be seen that all those other energies that science thought were different are just this one and only energy being manifested and interpreted in different ways. Those energies, forces and effects are not all different. They are all the same. In this chapter, it will be seen that electricity and light are both “made of” exactly the same thing. In the next chapters, magnetism, then gravity, then heat. Then it will be explained how the atom uses the one unified force to create all of those different effects.
Before any of this could be explained, the ether needed to be revealed. At this point, only a basic and rudimentary understanding of the ether has been provided, but it is sufficient for now. The photons that comprise the ether are responsible for the manifestation of all the wave energies that science has named “electromagnetic”. Not only that, but, without the ether, our universe would not even be able to function as it does. As stated in the "Discovery" chapter, waves cannot travel unless they propagate through a medium, and the ether is that medium.
Energy can only exist within matter and it causes the matter to attain motion. Energy only transfers from one piece of matter to the next via physical matter to matter contact. Physical contact between two objects is the ONLY way that allows energy to transfer from one object to the other. Energy cannot disconnect from matter and exist in space as some sort of mass-less particle, wave or object. It transfers from one particle of matter to the next particle of matter like a hand off in a relay race. The sub-atomic particles of matter that comprise the ether are the medium through which the mechanical propagation of the pattern of motion that we refer to as “light” happens.
This chapter will discuss the origin of the energy of light and its propagation as a wave through the ether. What will be explained about wave propagation is a measurable and scientific fact. Every energy transmission that can actually be seen and verified required those waves to travel through some body of objects made of matter via mechanical propagation. Einstein couldn’t see the “something” that light propagated through, and so he created a theory that redefined the nature of waves. It is only because of the effort to accept his theory that textbooks tell us that electromagnetic waves do not require a medium. This required the creation of the additional theory of “self-propagation”. It is a self-contradictory and scientifically impossible theory that tries to use a non-mechanical explanation for energy propagation without that energy actually propagating through anything at all.
Einstein’s theory started the whole avalanche of bad theories that exist today, and his theory is incorrect because he forsook the ether. The ether does exist, and that makes this a whole new ball game. It changes the understanding of how everything works. When energy exists within atoms, it causes varying degrees of motion and various patterns of motion with specific characteristics. When that exact same energy exists within the smaller sub atomic photons that make up the ether, it manifests with different and faster patterns of motion resulting in different energy effects.
What is energy? What is the unified force? Modern science is not able to answer that question. That is why they still seek a unifying type of force or field. However, the answer to that question has always been right in front of their eyes this whole time. Newton’s laws of motion already reveal the answer. The second law of motion, F = ma, reveals that a force is a mass in motion. The first law of motion reveals that a mass cannot change its existing state of motion unless it encounters an external force. The third law of motion reveals that forces are only exchanged when two objects (masses) come into contact with one another. That is, the application of an external force upon one mass is solely defined as being a collision with another mass.
Matter cannot move unless it is infused with energy. When energy combines with matter, the matter acquires the characteristic of motion. When matter in motion collides with other matter, that collision is defined by science as being some type of energy. The proof that this is completely true is easily verified. All one needs to do is to take a close look at how science measures and describes various energies and forces. What follows is a list of some of the energies that are measured and how those energies are defined.
ENERGY TYPE ENERGY NAME UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
Force Newton = N kg x m/ s x s
Pressure Pascal = Pa kg/ m x s x s
Work Joule = J kg x m x m/ s x s
Power Watt = W kg x m x m/s x s x s
Current Ampere = A N/m = (kg x m/s x s)/m
Electrical charge Coulomb = C A/s = [(kg x m/s x s)/m] /s
Electrical potential Volt = V kg x m x m/ A x s x s x s
Radiation rad J = kg x m x m/s x s
Each and every one of these definitions of various energies boils down to the same thing. They are all measurements which essentially describe “how much mass (kg) has moved over how much distance (m) in what duration of time (s).” The resultant energy derived from combining these three characteristics is all the same. It is the measurement of objects (masses) in various degrees and patterns of MOTION. This topic will be addressed again in more depth in the Analysis topic “Time, Space, Matter and Energy”.
That is what science perceives “energy” to be. That is what the Unified Force is; MASS IN MOTION. The energy that causes matter to attain motion will transfer from one object (one piece of matter) to the next only when those two objects come into physical contact with one another. When many objects are crowded closely together, the energy of motion will travel through all of those objects in a chain reaction of collisions known as “propagation”.
The motion that results when objects collide depends upon the objects. It depends upon the mass of the objects, the amount of energy occupying the mass, the way in which many objects are grouped or arranged, and the quantity of objects that are involved in the interaction. These different factors have resulted in the many different present day classifications of energy.
Newton’s second law of motion, F = ma (force = mass x acceleration), reveals more than just the fact that a force is a mass in motion. It also reveals to us that mass and acceleration are inversely related. Given a fixed amount of energy, then the greater the mass is, the slower the resultant motion. The lesser the mass is, the faster the resultant motion. Equipped with this knowledge of energy and its relationship to matter, the relationship between light and electricity can begin to be understood.
The inverse relationship between mass and speed is just one of the key ingredients to understanding why energy manifests to us with different effects that have names such as “light”, “heat”, “magnetism”, “electricity” and “gravity”. The other key ingredient requires the realization that it is not just a question of “how much mass is moving and at what speed”. One must also incorporate into one’s perceptions the concept of the continuing motion of many objects over a period of time. That is, the pattern of motion, when seen as a whole, that is created by a series of individual objects moving one by one. It is these different patterns of motion of groups of objects that results in the manifestation of waves with all different possible kinds of frequencies.
And so, the description of “How much mass is moving at what speed in which grouped pattern of motion” is the definition of any and all energies that exist in our universe.
The following diagram will help to illustrate the concept.
The left side of the image shows a close-up view of individual particles in motion. Each individual particle is simply moving in one direction at one speed. However, when many such individual particles move in unison, a pattern is revealed. The right side of the image shows the pattern when all of the individual objects are viewed as if they were a whole single object. That pattern is a wave.
The speed of any one of those particles is inversely related to the mass of that particle. The more mass it has, the slower it must go. Therefore, only those particles that have the least mass can attain the fastest speeds. Light waves have the fastest speeds of anything science has ever measured. This means that light must be propagating through the smallest particles that exist. Thus, the ether is entirely comprised of particles that have the smallest mass of anything in this universe.
Any explanation that is subsequently provided about the electron and light will be affected by the perceptions of the reader. Those perceptions are highly influenced by modern day theories and teachings. Two of those theories will play a major role in how one perceives things. The first theory that will have a major effect is that of one’s belief in the Bohr model of the atom. The second is that of Einstein’s teaching that photons have no mass.
Although both of those theories are incorrect, it is not necessary to let go of them just yet. For now, the image of the Bohr model of the atom will suffice in understanding the concepts in this chapter about light, and in the following chapters about magnetism and gravity. In Chapter 9 “The Proton, Heat and the Atom” the correct workings of the atom will be seen and everything will become clearer.
Likewise, the understanding that photons are mass-less will also do for now. That belief will simplify explaining the amazing things that photons seem to do. In Chapter 12 “The Smallest Picture”, the true nature of the photon will be revealed. The amazing things that it does are actually quite simple and easy to understand. The nature and behavior of the photon will reveal the true nature of the universe that we live in and will aid in understanding the workings of all motion.
The question that is relevant to this particular chapter is; “What is light and how is it created in the first place?” We already know the answer to that question. The answer lies in the exact same method that we often utilize to make light. The most effective method we use requires the use of electricity. Electricity also has a remarkable symbiotic relationship with magnetism. Electricity creates magnetic fields and magnetic fields create electricity. Electrical energy is also an energy that transfers from atoms to the ether in the form of light. With the right conditions, light can also transfer from the ether to the atoms in the form of electricity. The correlation between light and electricity has already been discovered and applied through the photoelectric effect. It is the effect which transforms the vibration energy of light directly into the vibration energy of electricity. We utilize this effect through the use of solar panels. Although photons themselves do not appear to interact with atoms in such a way as to hinder their movement, the energy that propagates through them does interact with them in a direct and exact back and forth transferal.
To start the process, an electron needs to transfer its energy of motion into a photon. The energy of motion (inertia) occupies an electron, causing it to always be orbiting, spinning and vibrating. The amount of inertia and the pattern of its motion affect the vibration rate and intensity of the motion of the electron (a direct correlation to frequency and amplitude). The mass of the electron imposes a limitation to the speed at which the electron can move in relation to the amount of energy it possesses.
At the same time, photons exist all around the electron, the atoms, and everything everywhere. Those photons are bouncing off one another randomly at an incredible light speed rate. The patterned vibrating motion of the electron needs to be transferred to the random motion of the ether. This is accomplished by physical contact between the two and results in propagation. That is, the electron and a photon bump into one another, which initiates a chain reaction of bumps that propagates through the photons in the ether in a direction straight away from the electron. This is how the energy of motion within an electron transfers into and through the ether.
This is the next most important concept in understanding this process. The vibrations of the electron consist of inertia in motion (energy). It is the mass of the electron multiplied by the speed of the electron that derives the total value of inertia. The same is true of the photon, which is much smaller than an electron. Therefore, even though the electron is moving at a slower speed than the photon, the transfer of its inertia into the photon results in the photon moving away at light speeds from that very same quantity of inertia. Because of the photons “no-mass” behavior, it always responds to inertia inputs by moving at the fastest speeds.
Once the transfer of motion occurs, the energy propagates through the ether at that exact frequency and amplitude corresponding to the vibration frequency and amplitude of the electron. (This is an oversimplification. The actual process is more complex. The exact details will be discussed later). The only difference is that the photon’s motion within the ether is the reverse image of the electron's vibration wave pattern. The reason why the reverse action happens will be explained later in this chapter. The propagation of this motion occurs at the average propagation rate of the “speed of light”. The motion that is propagated away from a continuously moving electron because of its continuous collisions with a never ending series of photons in sequence has a waveform pattern with a frequency that falls somewhere in the upper half of the electromagnetic band. In other words, it is light.
Because of the electron’s continuous motion, it constantly bumps into a never ending series of photons. Just as a swimmer moving through water is constantly “colliding” with water molecules, so too is an electron constantly colliding with photons as it orbits and spins within the ether ocean. All of those photons move away from the electron, one by one, in a pattern that is determined by the electron’s pattern of motion. This pattern, when looked at in its linear shape of photons travelling away in sequence, takes on the shape of a wave.
The wave (a stream of photons moving single file in a “snakelike” patterned sequence) continues on, propagating through the ether at light speeds until it encounters another electron. The wave then comes into contact with the receiving electron. The long line of photons that is shaped like a wave bumps into the receiving electron in a linear sequence and transfers the motion from the first electron into it. This process again reverses the waveform and the newly arrived vibration energy is blended with the already existing vibration energy of the receiving electron. The transfer of inertia is exactly equal. It has to be. Newton's third law of motion tells us so; "For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. If the receiving electrons are located in our eyes, we are then able to see the object.
This process is, essentially, Quantum Entanglement in action. When this type of energy transferal occurs in a frequency other than at light frequencies, scientists get confused. The entire transaction happens so fast, that it seems as if motion happens “here” in one atom, and instantaneously happens “there” too in a different atom without any visible means of contact between the two atoms. Science is confused by this because they do not yet see the ether. They have no idea how the two objects are connected, so they jokingly call this the “Spooky effect”.
This method of energy transfer is a MAJOR change in how science understood light to work. Science always thought that light bounced off of things. No it doesn’t. It never does. It is absorbed by whatever compatible electrons it encounters and is then blended with that electron’s frequency and re-transmitted. No vibration energy bounces off of anything. All energy of motion is absorbed, blended, and re-transmitted.
This is the simple explanation of the transference of energy (motion) from one electron to another through the ether. The actual situation is more complex because of the seemingly infinite number of energy transactions that occur by innumerable photons moving at extremely high speeds. Energy is moving into and out of electrons in all directions at all times. The incoming energy can have all different kinds of amplitudes and frequencies that vary all up and down the electromagnetic spectrum. The science already exists to calculate the effects of blending various frequencies. As such, the vibration energy that the electron emits at any given time depends on its state of motion at any given moment. One of the byproduct lower band frequencies created by the blending of vibrations is the frequency we know as heat. But the electron’s heat is not just any heat. It is a specific kind of heat. Chapter 9 will explain all about heat. The use of heat will aid in explaining what an atom is, why it works, and even what an atom actually looks like.
The atomic nature of the material that the electron is in plays a big part in the result of blending energies between photons and the atom. In fact, the construction pattern of the atom that an electron belongs to dictates and limits the frequency it can vibrate at. It can also affect the direction of the electron's emissions. Thus, light travelling through water would emerge at an angle displaced from the original angle. This happens because of the way in which water molecules align when they connect to one another. If electron positions in a substance are random, the light transmission patterns are random. If the electrons in a substance are lined up, the light transmission is lined up. This is an effect we call refraction. The cause of refraction is directly related with the substance they are a part of. Once in motion, a photon cannot change its own direction. They merely follow the directions given to them by the electrons.
The following chart of visible light frequencies shows the wavelengths of different colors of visible light.
Each color is caused by different wavelengths of light. The wavelength is a measurement of distance from the peak of one wave to the next peak of that wave. The slower that an electron moves in its orbital path around an atom, the more time it takes for that electron to complete one orbit. This translates into a decrease in frequency (orbits per second) and the resultant increase in wavelength. The faster the electron orbits around the atom, the less time it takes to complete one orbit. This translates to an increase in frequency (orbits per second) and a decrease in wavelength.
Electrons are trapped in their orbits around atoms. The entire atom affects and controls the rate at which an electron can orbit. As such, an electron’s ability to change frequency is extremely limited. Different colored objects prove that electrons vibrate at different and unique frequencies depending upon the atoms they are attached to. The fact that an entire thing (a blue shirt or a green lawn) all appears to be one color indicates that it is the nature of the atoms to which an electron belongs that dictates and confines its vibration frequency.
Nowhere in the above chart is the color “white”. White is actually the blending of all the colors on the chart. One single electron cannot be white. It requires many different electrons vibrating at different frequencies to create white light.
Photons do not orbit around anything. They are not restricted in any way in their ability to move. Their “no-mass” nature does allow them to move incredibly fast. Because of this, they can relay the multiple frequencies of all those different electrons to us so fast, that we perceive it as one blended color: white.
Photons that swirl in ether currents on and around Earth are saturated by the emissions of countless electrons that are nearby. As such, the vibration inertial patterns of these photons are blended to reflect the patterns of so many limited electron patterns in such close proximity. In outer space, there are few electrons which cause a blending of frequencies. As a result, the photons in space have a much broader vibration pattern. That is why light that is seen in space seems unchanged in its color and each color seems clear, distinct and sharp. Whereas photons that are close to electrons take on more of that electron’s overall vibration pattern. The resultant color of objects is affected by the color radiating from other nearby objects.
Why doesn’t the energy of electricity always escape into the ether as light energy? Electricity is the energy of motion of electrons which transfers directly from atom to atom through atoms. Light is the energy of motion of electrons which transfers indirectly from atom to atom through the ether. The ether acts like a middle man in the exchange process. The process is very simple. It is sort of a “first come, first serve” process. If an atom is in direct physical contact with another atom, the energy will instantly transfer from one atom to the other. If there is no direct physical contact with another atom, then the energy will transfer to the ether as soon as the next photon comes into contact with it.
And so, if the surplus energy transfers directly from atom to atom, it manifests to us as electricity. This is because two adjacent atoms are already sharing energy and their electrons have their vibrations synchronized. Even so, some of the electrical energy still gets transformed into heat. Some of the energy also gets transformed into magnetism, as will be discussed in the next chapter.
If an electron’s energy transfers indirectly from atom to atom via the ether, the energy transfer manifests to us as light. If the receiving atom is vibrating at the same frequency, it manifests the incoming light energy as electricity (the photoelectric effect). If the receiving electron is vibrating differently than the incoming light energy, it blends the frequencies and the majority of the energy relocates to other parts of the atom where it becomes heat. You will see why this happens when the atom is discussed.
If light and electricity are the same thing, then why doesn’t light electrocute us? This is because of two reasons. First of all, a small battery doesn’t electrocute us either. In fact, we don’t even feel the slightest shock from it. The power is so low, even if it transfers into us, we can’t even feel it. If the power is low enough, it won’t enter us at all, because we are poor conductors of electricity.
There is another reason why light doesn’t cause us to feel a shock. The atoms of our bodies (and most things) are configured in such a way that their electron vibration frequencies are incompatible with the high frequency wavelength of light. Because of this, most of light’s energy gets rejected by the electron and is sent to other parts of the atom. Once this happens, the light’s energy frequency gets transformed into a lower frequency that manifests as heat. And so, the manifestation of the transmission of electrical energy through the ether depends upon the receiver. Photocells are able to convert the energy directly back to electricity. Other substances just transform the energy into heat.
INERTIA, MOTION AND WAVES
Before looking any further into electron motion and its creation of light waves, it is important to be sure of having a clear understanding of inertia and of waves.
The law of conservation of energy tells us that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. The total amount of energy within the universe remains forever constant. Since energy and motion is one and the same thing, this means that all matter within the universe will just keep moving back and forth forever.
Then what does it mean if two objects experience a head on collision and come to a stop? Did their energy of motion cancel out and vanish? No it doesn’t. Either their motion departed from them and entered into the surrounding environment, or it remains within them and manifests as pressure. Thus, it is possible to have a situation where the energy of motion exists, but no corresponding atomic motion is happening.
How could the energy of motion exist within two objects that aren’t moving? Isn’t this a paradox? Isn’t it called “the energy of motion” because it moves? If the energy exists, then doesn’t that mean that something must be in motion?
Even though atoms may not be in motion, sub atomic motion (the motion of photons) can still be occurring quite frantically. Energy always moves. It must move. That is what energy is: motion. A situation that results in “pressure” is caused by sub atomic motion that is not readily apparent. The details of this are discussed in the Analysis topic “Sub Atomic Motion”.
Multiple objects that are moving in a grouped pattern can create shapes that resemble a wave. It is important to have a clear understanding of the terminology associated with waves. The following charts will show the relationships.
The first chart simply shows the relationships between amplitude and frequency. The second chart displays the motion of alternating electrical current. The “x” axis (center line from left to right) indicates the passage of time. The entire image is a moment by moment representation of the energy. Any specific point on the wave indicates “At what speed and in what direction at what time.” The distance between the peaks of the wave is known as the wavelength. It represents the distance traveled in one full cycle of the wave. A high frequency has a short wavelength. A low frequency has a long wavelength.
Notice how, on the right chart, it shows “degrees” across the bottom. 360 degrees equals one full circle. Chapter 10 “The Atom and Molecules” will show you exactly how that circle is created and why it looks like a sine wave on an oscilloscope. This is created by the more complex motion of the electron.
The motion of atoms moving and spinning in the ether causes constant collisions with the surrounding photons. Those photons travel away from the atom in a pattern that corresponds to the atom’s motion. That pattern is a wave. Changes in the atom’s motion can be seen as changes in the shape of the wave. Likewise, changes in an atom’s motion are transferred to other atoms by the wave.
Since a waveform is displaying the attributes of “what direction and what speed at what time”, then fluctuations in atomic motion will result in changes in the pattern of propagation which will result in changes in amplitude, frequency, or both. When atoms change speed, so do the photons that they bump into. Likewise, when atoms change their pattern of motion, so do the photons that they bump into. The photons only move in wave patterns because the patterned motion of the atoms creates that wave. And so, the motion of an atom is a bit more complicated than just its pattern of motion. Fluctuations in speed also affect the shape of the wave (amplitude and/or frequency) and awareness of both types of motion must be considered at all times.
Perhaps think of the sine wave as you would a heartbeat. The heartbeat signal indicates two different things happening at the same time. The first is the rhythm of the beat itself. The heart will beat so many times per minute. That is the frequency. The second thing indicated is the blood pressure. That is, the strength of that beat, or the amplitude. The heart can pump more blood by either beating faster, or by beating harder. In either case, more blood flows per minute.
Blood flows in only one direction, and so a heartbeat will always be displayed above the horizontal x-axis. Atomic motion is more complicated than that. The waveform created by an atom goes above and below the x-axis. This means that the atom is moving back and forth in a patterned way. Near the end of the chapter 10, “Atoms and Molecules”, it will be shown exactly what the back and forth motions that make up a sine wave are and why it represents 360 degrees (a full circle).
If an atom receives too much motion, it is in danger of flying apart. It moves faster and faster and bumps into more and more photons and atoms. It acquires more “elbow room” to move around in. It attains more energy (motion) than the surrounding environment has. The excessive collisions with the surrounding photons cause the extra energy to transfer back into the ether and spread around.
Think of the ether absorbing energy like a sponge soaking up water. Once the sponge is saturated, it cannot soak up any more water. In order to get rid of any remaining surplus water, you need to have more sponge, but you need to travel further to get to that area. When an atom moves back and forth over the same space too quickly, the ether can become saturated with energy and won’t have time to dissipate the energy by the time the object comes back. If the atom instead travels further in one direction in the same time frame, it covers more “fresh ground”. This allows more energy to be drained into the ether in the same time span. The universe enforces frequency changes (larger orbital circumferences) on atoms so that the ether can gradually and peacefully redistribute an atoms surplus energy. Sometimes, if the atom can’t increase its orbital circumference in order to cover more “fresh” areas of the ether in the allotted time, the ether will increase its frequency to compensate. This is why hurricanes and tornadoes occur. Excess heat energy is trying to transfer from the surface up into the atmosphere. The ocean or land can’t move up, and so the ether spins to expedite the energy transfer.
What if changing frequency is not an option? What if an object is unable to execute such a course correction, and so can’t move to a different patch of ether via a frequency change, and the ether also can’t increase its frequency in time? Then, the re-balancing of inertia can happen with an explosive jolt. The localized area of the ether that is attempting to propagate this massive surplus of energy can’t absorb the energy quickly enough. As a result, in an explosive release, all of the excess energy jumps to an area of the ether that can absorb it. It has to. The system has run out of time.
Some perfect examples of this explosive release would be a lightning bolt or an earthquake. With one huge discharge, all of the excess energy propagates through the nearby ether at the speed of propagation in order to reach an area of the ether than can absorb and distribute the energy, instantly re-balancing the system that was in danger of collapsing (Note: the “speed of propagation” is variable. It depends upon what the energy is propagating through. Consider the differences in the speed of sound through air, water and metal.) In the case of a lightning bolt, the pathway of that discharge becomes subjected to the high frequency vibrations that we call “electricity” and “light” at VERY high amplitudes, and is perceived by us as a bolt of lightning. In the case of an earthquake, that pathway becomes subjected to low frequency, high amplitude linear vibrations that we perceive as shaking and noise which we call “earthquakes”.
The forces of electricity, gravity, magnetism, heat and light all tie together via inertia (motion). That is why this is referred to as “The laws of everything”. Only the proven laws of science are needed to explain everything. No theoretical concepts or forces are needed at all. These topics will be repeated again and again in subsequent chapters. If you already have a good grasp on inertia, speed, frequency and amplitude, then consider what lies ahead as easy reading. If not, then re-visiting the inertia concepts should help things to come more and more into focus as you progress, one step at a time.
Sadly, it is impossible to talk about “everything” all at once. This is a big topic and it needs to be addressed step by step, with each new link in the chain added one at a time. In the end, it will come around full circle and the loop will be united as one big piece. For now, let’s return the focus back to the main topic of this chapter; the electron and light.
Electrons are always vibrating. This means that they are continuously changing direction and speed. How can they do this? It happens because directional inertia is being added into the atom from all different directions in rapid succession. The incoming energy is a stream of moving photons travelling in the form of waves. A wave is the combination of speed and direction of the patterned motion of other moving objects (amplitude and frequency) and is coming in from all directions. If you were to look at a picture of a waveform, any specific single point of the image represents inertia in a specific direction at specific amplitude. The wave of light shows the exact vibration of the electron. In other words, any point in the frequency indicates “How fast and in which direction” the electron was moving.
Vibration is inertia in motion which is constantly and rapidly changing direction. It actually makes perfect sense that things should and must vibrate. We live in a three dimensional universe. This means that things can move in three dimensions which require that inertial directions must be in three dimensions. The logical conclusion is that any point in space is being affected by inertial forces coming in from all directional possibilities at all times. What makes an electron so special is that it is able to process this inertia and incorporate it into itself in such a way as to create a stable vibration frequency. It cannot process all the inertia of the universe (only a photon can do that because it is a “free agent”), but of the types that the electron can process, it adds them and subtracts them from its frequency and amplitude to create a smooth and steady vibration. Those frequencies that it produces or receives which are incompatible with its natural vibration rate are sent elsewhere. Whether those energies go to the ether or to another part of the atom depends upon the situation and will be discussed as we delve deeper into the atom.
At any given moment in time, the vibration and amplitude within an electron is changing, but only within a certain range. That range of all the electrons in all their various atomic configurations is in the upper half of the electromagnetic frequency chart. An individual electron’s vibration is dictated by and limited to its environment. Its absolute minimum “comfortable” capability is approximately the middle of the electromagnetic bandwidth chart. An electron’s maximum vibration capability is in the upper extremes of the electromagnetic bandwidth chart. These upper and lower limits are defined by all the different possible configurations that can make up an atom. An electron is like an engine that runs on the fuel of inertia. But it is finicky. Only certain inertia will feed certain electrons. What the other inertia is which the electron ignores will be discussed later in the topic on gravity.
If you are scientifically astute and comfortable with the laws of motion and inertia, then a big question might arise. “How can incoming inertia always result in a corresponding motion? For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. A head-on collision of opposing inertia would cancel, leaving both the receiver and sender motionless. Obviously, this system being described won’t work.” That would be true if we were adding inertial energy from atom to atom. Think bigger! This process involves the transferring of energy from atoms to the ether via photons. Photons are being considered as behaving as objects that have no mass.
Inertia is the energy that is translated from waves into motion and motion into waves. Perhaps think of a wave as machine gun fire. Each individual bullet represents a single photon in motion. All of the moving bullets, when viewed as a whole, represent the wave. The corresponding motion in a moving target which is struck by that stream of bullets represents the behavior of an atom that receives the wave.
When high frequency, vibrating inertia exists within the electrons of an atom, it manifests to us as an effect that we call "electricity". This is because the electrons move in a circular orbital pattern and at a speed that is regulated by their mass and because they are repeatedly and continuously in contact with other adjacent atoms. When that very same high frequency, vibrating inertia is transferred into photons, it manifests to us as an effect we call "light". This is because the photons move in a linear wave pattern away from the atoms and because their mass is so much smaller than the mass of an electron. The exact same energy that the electron had causes the photon to move a whole lot faster than the electron was able to move. For example, if the electron's mass was 1,000 times greater than the mass of a photon, then, when the electron transfers its energy of motion into a photon, the photon will move 1,000 times faster. As a result, because of the differences in speed and patterns of motion, electricity becomes light.
If the existence of this energy in two different "realms" (atomic and ether) is hard to imagine, just remember that inertia is not ever lost or created out of thin air, and the laws of motion must be obeyed. If an atom strikes the ether with a force which has an inertial reference directed away from it, then the ether (a photon) must push back towards the atom. If that is the case, then how come the inertial force moves away from the atom in space? Remember that we are considering photons as having no mass. As such, they do not interact with atoms in the same way as atoms interact with other atoms.
When the electron strikes the photon, the photon pushes back with an equal but opposite force, towards the electron. Since the photon behaves as if it has no mass, it doesn’t oppose motion. It passes right through the electron and the electron moves towards the photon. Thus, the exchange of inertia also results in an exchange in motion in equal and opposite directions. The electron and the photon end up travelling in opposite directions away from one another.
The ability of the photon to pass through an atomic component is why a waveform in the ether is a reverse image of the atomic motion. However, the description of the energy exchange stated above may sound a bit crazy. How can a photon "bump into" an electron in order to exchange inertia, and yet simultaneously not "bump into" it, enabling it to pass right through it? Science already teaches us about the concept of a boson. That is, the existence of a particle that has no mass. That concept won't be disputed at this point; at least, not yet. For now, it is easier to just go with the idea that a photon is able to accomplish this because it has no mass. The exact details of how a photon actually accomplishes this are discussed in Chapter 12 "The Smallest Picture".
What does all of this mean? When electrons move, they create patterned waves of motion that move through the ether via photons and manifest as light. Likewise, when light waves move through the ether and the patterned motion of those photons encounter electrons, those electrons move. And if the electrons move enough, electricity can occur.
Some people have difficulty understanding how light and electricity is the same energy. The key to understanding it is in remembering the huge difference in mass between a photon and any other atomic component. When a certain amount of inertia (the energy of motion) exists within an electron, the mass of the electron causes it to respond by moving at a speed proportionate to its mass. The more massive the object, the slower it will move. When that exact same inertia is transferred into a tiny photon, it responds by moving MUCH faster.
When a fixed quantity of inertia exists within an electron, its mass causes it to move at a certain (sub-light) speed. When the electron bumps into a photon, it transfers its inertia into the photon. Because the photon is so much smaller, that same fixed quantity of inertia causes the photon to move at light speeds. All energy that we define as “electromagnetic” is inertia that exists within photons. It can have all different kinds of frequencies, but will always have amplitude that results in the photons moving at light speeds. This will be explained in more detail in the next chapters.
The speed that an object moves at directly affects the way in which it is perceived by us. When the inertia exists within photons and is moving at light speeds, we perceive it as magnetism, gravity, radio waves, microwaves, infra-red, visible light and radiation. The specific type of manifestation depends upon the pattern of motion (frequency). When that same energy is transferred to heavier, slower moving atoms, we perceive it as linear motion, sound, heat, electricity and radioactivity. Each of these will be discussed in greater detail in later chapters. This concept will be repeated throughout this paper. It is very important to understand the change in speed and pattern and the resulting effect in order to have the proper "feel" for the transfer of energy in the ether. It could be difficult to understand why the unified force is just one force unless this concept is understood.
Electricity is high frequency inertia in motion which moves by propagating from electron to electron in atoms. Light is the same high frequency of inertia in motion as it propagates from photon to photon in the ether. Both are exactly the same inertia moving at different speeds. One exists as a vibration within atoms. The other exists as a patterned wave of the exact same energy level propagating through vibrating photons in the ether.
Chapter 6 - THE ELECTRON AND MAGNETISM
COPYRIGHT © 2017, By Jonathan P. Volkel
This chapter will cover the concept of the creation and transmission of magnetism. Science always refers to light waves as "Electromagnetic" energy. It's as if, somehow, light is simultaneously "electric" and "magnetic" at the same time. It is because of the relationship between electricity and light and the relationship between electricity and magnetism that these concepts have all been merged together. Thus, light is supposedly made up of an electric “field” and a magnetic “field” that joins together and “self-propagates” through outer space.
The relationship between electricity and magnetism is also why the concept of "charges" exists. Magnets display properties that indicate they have opposite polarities, such that opposites attract and like charges repel. Since magnets behave that way, and electricity is always associated with magnetism, it is believed that electricity does that too. Electricity flows in predictable patterns, and it is believed it is those charges that are responsible for this. Thus, electrons and protons are believed to contain some sort of negative and positive energy that is responsible for these charges. Just as opposite polarities in magnets attract one another, it is believed that these charged electrical energies are attracted to one another too, and is what causes electricity to flow. As you are about to see, that's not the case at all.
Actually, magnetism has nothing directly to do with electricity. It is just a coincidental byproduct of "waste" energy that is always created when electricity is created. Electricity also generates heat, but it is fully known that heat is merely an unwanted byproduct of electricity and it even diminishes electricity's power. The fact that magnetism exists within magnets without the presence of electricity should be enough proof that the two energies are different, independent and separate.
Despite the obviousness of the independent functioning of both forces, science is convinced that electricity is the ultimate source and creator of all magnetism. It is believed that somehow, electricity imparts the force of magnetism into objects such as Iron, and then after the electricity is removed, the magnetic force remains. The Analysis topic “Magnetism Theories” demonstrates the early electrical experiments that led to science’s current beliefs, and shows how science’s interpretation of the data was incorrect.
In one sense, magnetism is completely different from electricity. In another sense, it is exactly the same energy as that of electricity and light, but it vibrates at a completely different frequency than electricity and light. As discussed previously, electricity is high frequency vibration created by electrons. How can an electron create a high frequency that manifests within atoms as electricity and also in the ether as light, and simultaneously create a different frequency that manifests in space (the ether) as magnetism? This chapter will explain how that is accomplished.
Whenever there is a discussion about electrons there is a discussion about electricity. Whenever there is a discussion about electricity, there must be one on magnetism. These two forces always seem to have an effect on one another. An electric current creates a magnetic field, and a magnetic field creates an electric current. It is interesting to note that the magnetic field created by an electric current opposes the movement of that current. This is Lenz’s law and it relates to Newton’s third law “For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction”. In other words, magnetism opposes the movement of electrons.
Magnetism is actually created by a very special type movement of the atom, and the more that the atom moves in that way the more magnetism is created. When an atom emits magnetic waves, it decreases its overall total of inertia and thereby decreases the energy of motion within itself. This is why magnetism seems to oppose electrical motion. All energy is simply inertia in motion. All motion is created by the one Unified Force. When an atom expends some of its energy of motion as magnetism, it leaves less energy of motion available for the atom to manifest as electricity. Thus, an increase in magnetism simultaneously decreases the flow of electricity. Magnetism and electricity are not two separate and alien energies that fight against each other. They are one and the same energy which manifest as different frequencies of motion. They share the total supply of energy within the atom. When one increases, the other must decrease. This relationship serves as evidence that they are both a manifestation of the unified force.
Electricity is described as the movement of electrons. The statement “movement of electrons” can be misleading. Electrons do not move from atom to atom. They vibrate, rotate and orbit in a specific pattern around an atom. Science believes that positive and negative charges inhabit specific parts of an atom. Actually, positive and negative refer to an inertia surplus or an inertia deficiency. The process of balancing inertia in all the systems of the atoms involved results in the movement of inertia that we call “electricity”. Realize that none of this information changes WHAT happens. The data and the known and proven laws of science are correct. These explanations only explain WHY the data is what it is and why the laws that we know exist. Science has a very clear picture of the “what”. Now science will know “why”. To get a clear understanding of what "polarity", "positive", "negative" and "current" really mean, read the Analysis topic "Magnetic Fields".
Does magnetism affect and interact with the ether? If you ever listened to AM radio during an electrical storm, then you already know if magnetism affects the ether. Radio signals are essentially waves travelling through the ether at a lower (non-visible) frequency level. AM radio maintains a steady frequency but transmits audio data by varying the amplitude of the signal. When a bolt of lightning travels through the air, a large magnetic pulse is emitted by it. The magnetism travels through the ether. When it encounters electromagnetic energy, such as radio waves, it boosts the amplitude of that energy. This comes through on the AM radio as a large irregular blast of audio, which we call static. This is all the information needed to see the relationship between magnetism, atoms and the ether.
The above chart shows the relationship between all the different electromagnetic frequencies and how those different frequencies manifest to us. Notice how much lower the frequency of radio waves are compared to light waves.
Magnetism is another of those forces thought to be a force that works at a distance. It is believed that it travels through the vacuum of space by uncertain means to reach out and affect things. That conclusion is incorrect. Magnetism cannot and does not move through a vacuum. It moves through the ether by propagating through its photons.
How does a wave transform into motion? As previously discussed, the wave form is vibrating inertia from atoms that transfer their patterns of motion into photons which then travel in a linear fashion through the ether by propagation. When a waveform from the ether (a series of many photons travelling in a wave shaped formation) strikes an electron, the receiving electron responds with an equal and opposite reaction. In other words, it pushes back in the opposite direction with exactly the same force. The amazing effect that allows motion to occur even though the two forces exactly oppose each other happens because the photon does not interfere with the motion of atoms. THE PHOTON BEHAVES AS IF IT HAS NO MASS! Thus the pushing back by the receiving electron results in motion. The electron moves towards the photons, and the photons move towards and through the electron. The resulting frequency is a mirror image of the incoming frequency. Once a photon passes through the electron, the electron and photon find themselves moving away from one another.
This is why the transfer of inertia results in motion. There is no net gain or loss of inertia. It just simply moved from the ether to atoms and back and forth. Photons enable the transference of inertia from one system to the other and the grand total of inertia of the two systems combined is constant. The opposing movements in opposite directions are why the waveform contained within the ether is the exact opposite of the inertia which created it. This is why ether currents move in the opposite direction of the movement of matter composed of atoms.
Magnetism is the byproduct of an electron, and even the entire atom, trying to keep itself stable. Everything we know about the realm of matter shows us that everything is spinning. The Sun spins around the galaxy and the planets spin around the Sun. The Sun also spins on its axis and so does the Earth. Since these inertia forces are carried back and forth by propagation through the ether, then they transfer into the atoms as well.
It is logical to believe that electrons are also rotating on their own axis and revolving around some central point. If inertia forces from the universe are transmitted back and forth to electrons, protons and neutrons via the ether, and those inertia forces are rotational; then those forces must become part of the overall inertia of those atomic particles. THEY MUST BE SPINNING. In fact, the entire overall behavior of the atom must be identical to the behavior of our planet, solar system and galaxy! Did the spinning of the atoms cause the galaxies to spin, or did the spinning of the galaxies cause the atoms to spin? Which came first? That is a very deep question. Either way, our universe is made up of atoms and all the inertia forces in the universe are transmitted to everything at the speed of light via the ether. Since everything that we can see in the large scale universe is spinning and orbiting, then the ether must be transferring that motion to the atoms as well. What one does, the others MUST do also.
This is another of those concepts that challenges everything we think we know about the universe and the way things work. When we think about the effect that celestial bodies have on us, here on Earth, our perception is limited to the gravitational effects of the Sun, moon and planets. We believe that other galaxies are too far away for the limited effective range of gravity to have any effect on us. That’s because we never realized that we were actually connected to them through the ether.
Imagine a bucket full of water. Suspend two propellers into the water on opposite sides of the bucket. Spin one propeller and watch what happens. As the water begins to circulate faster and faster, the circulating water causes the other propeller to move. Given enough time and constant stirring, eventually both propellers will be spinning at the same speed. So it is with the entire universe. The ether is the “water”. All the galaxies are the “propellers”. The entire system is cruising at a constant speed. All the rotational inertial forces acting everywhere in the universe affect us here, and they are already at full effect here. Realization of this solves theories like “Dark Matter” and “Dark Energy”. These theories came into existence because the astronomical evidence indicated that there was a force at work besides just gravity. Those theories try to explain the observed effects without allowing for the existence of the ether. Obviously, those theories that try to explain WHY it happens are incorrect.
This means that the behavior of an electron can be compared to something like the behavior of Earth. Everything we already know about gravitational pull, speed of orbit, angular tilt, etc., can be directly applied to the behavior of an electron. An entire atom can be compared to a small solar system, and will behave exactly the same way. IT HAS TO! The inertia of the entire universe demands that it does.
This would mean that the electrons orbit has a unique inertial reference in relation to everything else out there. Its overall inertia is determined by the greatest rotational force acting upon it. Its personal inertia introduces slight fluctuations into the grand total. Does its overall rotational inertia come from the Earth as it travels around the Sun? Does it come from the orbital inertial pattern of the Sun spinning around the galaxy? Perhaps it matches the orbital pattern created by the galaxy spinning around the universe? Isn’t it the only logical conclusion that our galaxy is spinning around some central point in the universe? If even a tiny electron matches the spin of everything else, then so too must the galaxy. Imagine if a galaxy were racing through space in a straight line (as suggested by The Big Bang Theory). That linear motion would be transferred to everything within that galaxy by the ether. Not only would the solar systems within it fly apart, but every atom would shake itself to pieces. The fact that our solar system and all the galaxies are spinning in stable configurations means that the entire universe must also be spinning. THERE IS NO OTHER EXPLANATION.
So which orbital path in the universe exerts the greatest influence on an electron? It doesn’t matter exactly which has the greatest influence. What matters is that all of those forces combine to create one overall universal rotational plane of motion that Earth and Earth alone possesses. At any other place in the universe, the sum of all those forces yields a different grand total. In other words, all of the incoming inertia waves from the universe add together to create a total rotational inertia unique to Earth. When these inertia waves hit the electron (or anything for that matter), it pushes back against the ether and moves in a corresponding orbital path.
An electron can have multiple types of motion occurring in different patterns with different speeds existing within it all at one time. To understand this, just envision the behavior of the Earth. It rotates on its axis. In addition to that, it has a tilt which causes a slow wobble in the rotational motion. At the same time that is occurring, the Earth is also orbiting around the Sun. Not only that, but the Sun is orbiting around the galaxy and dragging the Earth along for the ride. And if all of that is not enough, then realize that each and every atom that makes up the Earth is vibrating. All of these different patterns and speeds of motion are all occurring at the same time in just the one object.
An electron rotates on its axis. It also simultaneously orbits around the atom. It is this high speed orbital motion that is responsible for electricity and light. The electron can also have a low speed oscillation occurring simultaneously with those other high speed motions. A wobble or an oscillation is inertia of very low frequency. In other words, it is a very long wavelength because it is a motion that slowly changes direction. Wobble refers to side to side motion. Oscillation refers to up and down motion. An imbalance in the spin of an electron and the entire atom manifests as oscillation. The oscillation is a secondary type of motion superimposed on top of an electron’s normal high speed orbital motion.
Oscillation doesn’t only affect the electron. The entire atom is affected by it. Just as an imbalanced tire can cause an entire car to shake, oscillation anywhere in an atom causes the whole atom to shake. Chapters 9 and 13 discuss the atom and oscillation in more detail. For now, just to keep things simple, oscillation will only be referred to in the context of the electron. Once the correct model of the atom is seen, a clearer picture of how the entire atom oscillates will be revealed.
The magnitude of the inertia of this imbalanced secondary motion within an atom has certain amplitude (speed). In this case, the amplitude would be small (at first), but the long and slow directional travel makes the wavelength very large. Over time, the amplitude increases (adding two identical frequencies = the same frequency with higher amplitude). Oscillation frequency stays the same, but amplitude (speed) increases with every rotation of the oscillation. Eventually, the speed is too much for the frequency, and the oscillation changes. The object must either shed the amplitude or change frequency, or do a combination of both. In the case of an electron, it is more difficult to change frequency because it is “locked” into an orbital position and speed maintained by the rest of the atom. It therefore sheds the excess amplitude.
Perhaps think of it like someone riding a bucking bronco. The bronco’s forward speed is not the problem. The up and down bucking is what makes it difficult for the rider to stay on. And it’s not the frequency of the bucking that makes it difficult for the rider to hang on. It’s the amplitude of the bucking that creates the problem. If the amplitude of the bucking is small, no matter the frequency, the rider has an easy time hanging on. As the intensity of the bucking increases, the rider is in ever greater danger of being thrown off. The only way to stay on is to decrease the intensity of the bucking.
Keep in mind that magnetism is all about two different kinds of motions occurring at the same time. One is the smooth vibration pattern of the electrons orbital motion. It is this high frequency vibration that is responsible for electricity and light. The other motion is an off balance, low frequency oscillation (up and down bounce) that occurs during the electron’s orbital journey. The movement of electricity involves the sudden and jolting transferal of lots of energy from one atom into another via the electrons. That transferal disrupts the electron's orbit and introduces a low frequency oscillation (an up and down bounce) into the electron’s orbital motion. In fact, it affects the motion of all the atomic components.
There are two types of magnetism that we encounter. One is artificially created by electricity. This form of magnetism is an accidental byproduct of creating electrical current. The process of transferring electrical energy from one atom to the next is such a major movement of inertia that it momentarily throws the atom out of balance causing it to oscillate and thereby create magnetism. The other type of magnetism is naturally occurring, as with every day household magnets and the like. Both types of magnetic energy manifest in the exact same way.
In natural magnetism, oscillation happens continuously in the atoms that compose the magnetic object. The majority of rotational force of the universe keeps forcing the electron to fly “flat” (no bouncing), but the natural off-balance configuration of some atoms keeps causing it to bounce. Most atoms have stable configurations which easily correct external inputs that create imbalances which might cause oscillation. They absorb the oscillation by blending it with their own vibrations and therefore display little or no magnetic properties. Some atoms are arranged in such a way that the configuration of their atomic components causes an extreme built in tilt within the atom which causes oscillation to be permanent. These elements constantly shed magnetic energy. Iron is one such atom.
With every rotation of the atom, the rotational forces of the universe push the atom back towards alignment and force it to shed its imbalanced motion. This causes the energy to be released into the ether. It has a low frequency with a very long wavelength (very directional). The oscillating effect is most pronounced in the electron because it is the furthest from the center of the atom. Thus, any imbalance in an atom usually manifests first in the electron. Oscillation is very bad for the system that makes up the atom.
The oscillating inertia (up and down bouncing motion) of the electron is transferred to a photon in the ether. The photon pushes back with an equal and opposite force. Since photons do not interfere with atoms, the photon moves towards and through the electron. The electron moves straight towards the photon in the direction of the oscillating inertia. The inertia of the oscillation within the electron (amplitude) is now diminished because it was transferred from the electron into the ether. The inertia balance of the universe is always constant, but the electron is now more aligned with it and is more stable (the oscillation amplitude has diminished). The oscillation instability now resides in the ether. The electron keeps shedding its oscillation into the ether until the oscillation is gone. The inertia reference of the electron again matches that of the universe. The photon carrying the oscillation frequency travels straight through the electron (because of its “no mass” behavior) and heads out into the ether away from the electron.
Thus, the wave propagates through space at light speeds, blending its waveform with each photon it comes into contact with. Since the vibration patterns of the photons in the ether are usually at higher frequencies, this linear magnetic inertia will not travel very far before all of the inertia contained in the transmission is blended into the ether, thereby transforming it into a high frequency, non-magnetic wave. If, however it encounters other photons with a similar low frequency magnetic waveform, the blending doesn’t change it very much. This blending process creates a series of photons with low frequency, linear inertia. They move in a more linear, less vibratory fashion, and become ether currents which move away from the electron. The strength of the current diminishes as it gets further away from the electron. If the photons carrying the wave encounter another atom before the magnetic wave gets transformed into too high a frequency, then it will transfer its remaining linear magnetic inertia to that atom’s electron.
The oscillation motion being carried by the photons contains inertia pointing away from the sending electron. Once the wave makes contact with another electron, the inertia force transfers to that electron. The photon applies the force which had a direction of moving away from the sending electron, and so it pushes against the receiving electron in that direction. The receiving electron pushes back with equal and opposite force. Since photons do not oppose motion, there is no opposition to the movement of the receiving electron. The photon moves towards the receiving electron, creating ether current, and the receiving electron moves towards the photon, STRAIGHT AT THE ELECTRON THAT SENT OUT THE INERTIA.
As a result, the atom to which the receiving electron belongs gains a linear, directional inertia straight towards the electron that emitted the wave. If the magnetic wave is continuous (a low frequency wave), then the receiving electron continues to move toward the sending electron. This effect is known as magnetism. It is not some mysterious pulling force. It is simply the transfer of low frequency directional inertia via the ether. Gravity works a similar way, but is created by a different method. This will be explained further in the chapter on gravity. The exact step-by-step process of creating gravity is explained in the Analysis topic "Sub-Atomic Motion".
Why are some elements more magnetic than others? Just as the nature of the Earth causes it to orbit with a tilt, the nature of some elements causes their systems to revolve with an imbalance that is not exactly lined up with the rotational inertia reference of the galaxy. The electrons in these elements are always oscillating and always emitting some magnetic waves. The configuration of the atom also dictates their responses to incoming frequencies. The universe perpetually imposes its rotational inertia onto all atoms which causes all atoms to consistently behave as they do. Also remember that when two frequencies combine, they blend. If the frequencies are the same, then the only thing that happens is that amplitudes add (speed increases). Thus, an electron that is already oscillating will oscillate even faster when it receives an oscillation from another electron. In other words, an atom that emits magnetism will also receive and respond to magnetism with directional movement towards the sender of the magnetism.
Why can Iron be so easily magnetized? First, consider a chunk of Iron. It consists of massive quantities of Iron atoms all bonded together. Within a certain temperature range, Iron is solid. Iron needs to bond with many other Iron atoms in order to share inertia back and forth. Once a sufficient amount of bonds are made, the Iron’s in-and-out inertial flow is as balanced as possible, and the Iron becomes “stable”. Iron requires many connections to achieve this, which is why it is so solid and great for construction projects. In addition to that, the oscillating electrons within Iron are emitting magnetic waves in all directions. Not only does Iron’s electron’s emit magnetic waves, but they are also in tune with those waves and receive them equally as well. As previously mentioned, magnetism’s behavior is similar to gravity’s behavior. It creates a motion that is inward. As a result, Iron behaves as if it has an extra supply of gravity working within it. It is denser and heavier inch per inch than its atomic number would indicate. Once Iron becomes magnetized, the characteristics of the Iron changes, because the magnetic waves no longer travel in every direction. Instead, those waves are focused to travel outside of the Iron. As a result, the Iron loses that extra source of inward inertia and becomes more brittle.
Blacksmiths used to create magnets by heating an Iron rod, facing it north, and hitting it with a hammer. Why did this magnetize Iron? Hammering and heat both do the same thing. They send extra inertia into the Iron. When this happens, the Iron suddenly “realizes” that it doesn’t need all those interconnections with other Iron atoms to attain extra energy in order to stabilize. It breaks some of those connections (but not nearly enough for it to become liquid). By facing the Iron north, you add in the element of a directional input of inertia that encourages the Iron to sever bonds along that line rather than just severing those bonds randomly. Once the artificial inertial input is removed, the Iron finds itself disconnected from some of the other atoms that helped stabilize it. As a result, it oscillates a little more. It is now magnetized. Over time, as the inertial imbalance within the Iron increases, it becomes forced to re-unite with the other Iron clusters to regain stability. Freezing the Iron should rob its inertia even faster, causing it to de-stabilize quicker and compelling the reunion sooner. The Iron becomes de-magnetized.
Any artificial input of inertia into the Iron can promote the separation of Iron-to-Iron atomic connections: heat and hammering work just fine. By applying a large magnetic force to the Iron (inputting linear waves of directional inertia), it forces the Iron to undergo the process. Holding a magnet close to some Iron inserts low frequency inertia into the Iron. This causes the above effect to a slight and temporary degree (holding a nail to a magnet temporarily magnetizes it).
Because of its atomic configuration, Iron continuously “runs” in an imbalanced way, causing oscillations to ripple up and down the line of its atomic components. The oscillating effects are more pronounced farthest from the center of the atom. Thus, the electron, situated at the end of the line, oscillates the most. The proton oscillates a little less, and the neutrons barely oscillate. The inertia that causes the oscillation is the same at each connecting point, but because of the size difference in the components, the speed and distance of movement is different. The effect is worse at the electron. The neutrons are the least disturbed by the oscillations, but the electron and proton suffer the most at their mutual point of contact. This linear oscillation has nowhere to go but “out”, and is transmitted into the ether.
Right now you might be thinking: “Wait! What? HOLD ON A MINUTE! It was just stated ‘Thus, the electron, situated at the end of the line, oscillates the most. The proton oscillates a little less, and the neutrons barely oscillate.’ And, also mentioned was their ‘connecting point’ and ‘mutual point of contact’! What the heck is that supposed to mean? That’s not how an atom looks or functions!” That is true. At least, not according to what science believes now and has taught us (The Bohr model of the atom). The explanation can only progress one step at a time, explaining each step fully before proceeding to the next. Be patient. All will be made perfectly clear. Keep reading. An interesting surprise is in store.
Why does the Earth have a magnetic field? The details of how it works are explained in the Analysis topic “Magnetic Fields”. Essentially, gravity is the “fuel” for it. All energies are just the one Unified energy. Excessive gravity motion imbalances Iron within the core of the planet. This causes the Iron to extremely oscillate. The Iron transforms the excess gravity motion into heat, light and magnetism.
Iron normally bonds with other Iron atoms in an attempt to balance itself as best as possible. Even with the perfect amount of motion, it still oscillates. If it gains too much motion or loses too much motion, its oscillations increase. Superconductivity involves the application of very cold temperatures. This process steals a great deal of energy from atoms and can even cause oscillations in elements other than Iron. Effects like magnetism are enhanced under these conditions.
Earth’s magnetic field is actually one large ether current that circulates around and through the Earth. Ether can’t be compressed. What goes in must come out somewhere. Here is a depiction of the ether currents that would be created by magnetism (and gravitational currents combined).
Scientists label this depiction “The magnetic field”. Without realizing it, they drew a picture of ether currents. Light that passes through perpendicular to these currents will experience a bend in their trajectory. That is because the photons which the light is traveling through are moving. This is why Eddington's eclipse photographs yielded the results that they did. Space doesn't bend. It's the ether currents that move. Imagine how large of an area would be affected by these currents near a huge mass, like the Sun! It would be a large enough area so that, by the time the light traveled all the way through those currents and emerged back into current free space, its trajectory would have bent.
There is actually a place where one could go and see the Earth’s magnetic ether currents illuminated. It illuminates because all the incoming high frequencies from outer space are getting blended into lower and lower frequencies. Some of those blended frequencies fall into the realm of visible light. It’s almost like what one would see in the headlights when driving a car at night through the fog. In order to see it, you would have to go to one of the two areas where the currents converge, creating the perfect frequency conditions; either the North or South poles. It isn’t named “the ether”. Instead, it is called the “Aurora Borealis” or “northern lights”. Scientists have known and seen how the ether behaved for years. They just didn’t realize that they were looking right at it.
When a magnetic field passes through a conductor, it does so because it was carried there by photons in the ether. This results in an electric current occurring. But, it only happens while the magnetic field is moving. A stationary magnetic field does not induce a current. By applying a magnetic field, you are introducing linear inertia at an oscillation frequency into an atom. The spinning of the universe forces a speed limit of total inertia upon an atom, but the magnetic field is adding inertia and forcing the atom to go above the “speed limit”. Since the incoming magnetic field won’t go away, the atom sheds other inertia (its high frequency electrical inertia) to get back down to the universe’s average energy level. This results in a momentary energy flow of inertia out of the atom. When the incoming magnetic field is removed (turned off), the atom suddenly finds itself low on inertia and below the “speed limit”. It immediately draws high frequency electrical inertia from other atoms to regain inertia that was lost when the magnetism was removed, pick up speed, and stabilize itself again. Electrical energy flows back into the atom. By repeatedly turning a magnetic field on and off, inertia in motion (electric current) will repeatedly flow out of and into an atom. This is called “alternating current”.
It is important to remember the grand scheme of things. There is no difference between energy being transmitted from star to star across the vastness of space, and the energy being transmitted from atom to atom in the microscopic universe of atoms. It all works the same way. The only difference is the distance. It all requires photons to bridge the gap between them.
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